Purpose: The prognostic significance of pretreatment serum C-terminus of cytokeratin 19 (CYFRA21-1, CYFRA) status was evaluated in the patients with surgically treated esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Methods: A total of 1047 patients with surgically treated esophageal cancer were enrolled in a multi-institutional study promoted by the Japanese Esophageal Society. This study included an up-front surgery group (n = 412), a neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) group (n = 486), and a neoadjuvant chemoradiation/radiation therapy (NACRT/RT) group (n = 149). The pretreatment CYFRA status was analyzed to assess prognostic significance using multivariate analysis according to treatment modalities.
Results: The CYFRA-positive group was significantly associated with deep tumor. Univariate analysis showed that the overall survival of the CYFRA-positive group was significantly worse than that of the CYFRA-negative group, but the difference was not significant in the multivariate analysis. CYFRA was an independent risk factor for poor prognosis just in the NACRT/RT group.
Conclusions: The CYFRA-positive group was associated with deep tumor and poor survival. Pretreatment CYFRA was not an independent risk factor for poor prognosis in the up-front surgery group or NAC group. It was an independent risk factor for poor prognosis just in the NACRT/RT group.
Purpose: The aims of this work were the retrospective analysis of a cohort of patients with acute mediastinitis treated at the authors’ worksite over a 15-year period and the identification of factors that significantly affect the outcomes of the therapy.
Methods: During the period 2006–2020, 80 patients with acute mediastinitis were treated. Within the cohort, the following were observed: the causes and the type of acute mediastinitis, length of anamnesis, comorbidities, diagnostic methods, time from the diagnosis to surgery, types and number of surgical procedures, results of microbiological tests, complications, and outcomes of the treatment.
Results: The most common type of acute mediastinitis was descending mediastinitis (48.75%). A total of 116 surgical procedures were performed. Ten patients in the cohort died (12.5%). Patients older than 60 years were at a 6.8 times higher risk of death. Patients with more than two comorbidities were at a 14.3 times higher risk of death. The presence of yeasts in the culture material increased the risk of death by 4.4 times.
Conclusion: Early diagnosis, removal of the cause of mediastinitis, sufficient mediastinal debridement, and multiple drainage thereof with the possibility of continual postoperative lavage are essential for the successful treatment of acute mediastinitis.
Purpose: The effect of our comprehensive strategy to reduce pain after minimally invasive mitral valve repair through a right mini-thoracotomy was assessed retrospectively.
Methods: Our comprehensive strategy constituted the following: planned rib cutting to avoid rib injury, sufficient intercostal muscle division to mobilize the cut rib, limiting the number of intercostal ports, avoiding nerve entrapment, continuous extra-pleural intercostal nerve block, and regular use of oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. We compared patients treated with this comprehensive strategy (Group S, n = 13) and patients before this strategy was implemented (Group C, n = 13). We used a numerical rating scale (NRS) as a pain scale during the first 3 days postoperatively.
Results: The average NRS was significantly lower in Group S (0.82 ± 0.49) than in Group C (2.40 ± 1.46) (P <0.01). The maximum NRS was also significantly lower in Group S (3.23 ± 1.17) than in Group C (5.69 ± 2.43) (P <0.01). The number of patients using additional single-dose analgesic were significantly less in Group S (23.1%) than in Group C (84.6%) (P <0.01).
Conclusion: Our comprehensive pain control strategy effectively reduced postoperative pain in minimally invasive mitral valve repair.
Objective: To analyze the results of hemoadsorption in patients with cardiac surgery to thoracic aortic surgery, who had been loaded beforehand with either Factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban or P2Y12 receptor antagonist ticagrelor.
Methods: We investigated 21 of 171 consecutive patients (median age 71 [interquartile range 62, 76] years) who underwent emergency cardiac operations for acute type A aortic dissection between 2014 and 2020. These patients were pretreated with rivaroxaban (n = 9) or ticagrelor (n = 12). In ten of 21 cases (since 2017), we installed a hemoadsorber into the heart–lung machine and compared the results to eleven patients done without hemoadsorber before that time.
Results: The operation time was significantly shorter in the adsorber group (286 ± 40 min vs. 348 ± 79 min; p = 0.045). The postoperative 24-hour drainage volume was significantly lower after adsorption (p <0.001; 482 ± 122 ml vs. 907 ± 427 ml) and no rethoracotomy had to be performed (compared to two rethoracotomies [18.9%] among patients without adsorber use). Also, patients without hemoadsorption required significantly more platelet transfusions (p = 0.049).
Conclusions: In patients with acute type A aortic dissection who were pretreated with rivaroxaban and ticagrelor, the intraoperative use of CytoSorb hemoadsorption during cardiopulmonary bypass is reported for the first time. The method was found to be effective to prevent from bleeding and to improve the outcome in aortic dissection.
Purpose: To compare open versus endovascular left subclavian artery debranching for thoracic endovascular aortic repair of thoracic aortic pathologies.
Methods: This is a retrospective study of patients receiving left subclavian artery debranching in our institution from October 2009 to January 2020. The primary outcome was freedom from aortic reintervention. Secondary outcomes were type I endoleaks, left subclavian artery (LSA) debranching failure, stroke, technical or clinical success, procedure-related reintervention, as well as 30-day or overall all-cause and aorta-related mortality.
Results: Forty-eight patients received parallel graft-based (n = 24, ENDO; median age 75 years [70–80 years]) or open (n = 24, OPEN; median age 71 years [59–75 years]) debranching for type B aortic dissection (n = 25), degenerative aneurysm (n = 12), type IA endoleak (n = 6), suture-associated (n = 3) or ostial LSA aneurysm (n = 1), or penetrating aortic ulcer (n = 1). The median follow-up was 36 months (13–61 months). After 16 months, aortic reintervention-free survival in groups OPEN and ENDO was 91% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 79 to 100%) and 86% (73 to 100%) (p = 0.71), respectively. After 36 months, all-cause survival in groups OPEN and ENDO was 74% (95% CI: 55 to 99%) and 79% (95% CI: 64 to 97%) (p = 0.74), respectively; freedom from aorta-related mortality was 81% (95% CI: 62 to 100%) and 91% (95% CI: 80 to 100%) (p = 0.78), respectively. Group OPEN presented less type I endoleaks (OPEN/ENDO = 3/19, p <0.001) and higher technical (OPEN/ENDO = 81/36%, p = 0.003) and clinical success rates (OPEN/ENDO = 67/36%, p = 0.047). No statistical differences were found for other outcomes.
Conclusion: Both strategies achieved comparable reintervention and mortality rates, but open debranching should be preferred due to its higher technical and clinical success and less type I endoleaks.
Purpose: High-dose heparin has been suggested to reduce consumption coagulopathy.
Materials and Methods: In a randomized, blinded, prospective trial of patients undergoing elective, complex cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, patients were randomized to one of three groups: 1) high-dose heparin (HH) receiving an initial heparin dose of 450 u/kg, 2) heparin concentration monitoring (HC) with Hepcon Hemostasis Management System (HMS; Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA) monitoring, or 3) a control group (C) receiving a standard heparin dose of 300 u/kg. Primary outcome measures were blood loss and transfusion requirements.
Results: There were 269 patients block randomized based on primary versus redo sternotomy to one of the three groups from August 2001 to August 2003. There was no difference in operative bleeding between the groups. Chest tube drainage did not differ between treatment groups at 8 hours (median [25th percentile, 75th percentile] for control group was 321 [211, 490] compared to 340 [210, 443] and 327 [250, 545], p = 0.998 and p = 0.540, for HH and HC treatment groups, respectively). The percentage of patients receiving transfusion was not different among the groups.
Conclusion: Higher heparin dosing accomplished by either activated clot time or HC monitoring did not reduce 24-hour intensive care unit blood loss or transfusion requirements.
Background: Concomitant mitral regurgitation (MR) is frequently seen in patients undergoing surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR) for severe aortic stenosis (AS). When the severity of MR is moderate or less, the decision to undertake simultaneous mitral valve intervention can be challenging.
Methods: A systematic search of Medline, PubMed (NCBI), Embase and Cochrane Library was conducted to qualitatively assess the current evidence for concomitant mitral valve intervention for MR in patients with AS undergoing AVR. The primary outcome for this systematic review was the postoperative change in the severity of MR and other outcomes of interest included factors that predict improvement or persistence of MR and long-term impacts of residual MR.
Results: A total of 17 studies were included. The percentage of patients demonstrating improvement in MR severity following AVR ranged from 17.2% to 72%; the studies that exclusively included patients with moderate functional MR and reported longer term echocardiographic follow-up of greater than 12 months demonstrated an improvement in MR severity of 45% to 72%.
Conclusion: This systematic review demonstrates that a proportion of patients can exhibit an improvement in MR following isolated surgical AVR, but whether this confers any long-term morbidity and mortality benefit remains unclear.
Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a fibroinflammatory condition which involves various organs. This is a very rare case of IgG4-related lung disease (IgG4-RLD) with the invasion into diaphragm. The patient was a 71-year-old man with a long-term exposure to asbestos who had a mass shadow in the left lower lung lobe, which was suspected to invade the left diaphragm on computed tomography (CT). Positron emission tomography (PET)/CT also presented an avid intake of fluorodeoxyglucose in the mass, which suspected lung cancer. Although bronchoscopic biopsy could not lead to the definite diagnosis, we performed left lower lobectomy combined with the resection of left diaphragm. The specimen showed the features of IgG4-RLD on pathology: the vein stenosis and fibrosis around the vein, the infiltration of IgG4-positive cells, and IgG cells to IgG4 cells ratio of 40%. Furthermore, there were inflammatory cells infiltrating to the diaphragm.
We report a surgical case of bronchial artery aneurysm (BAA) that directly connected to a pulmonary artery and a pulmonary vein through an abnormal vessel. It was complicated by racemose hemangioma. This is a rare vascular malformation. An 82-year-old female had a large BAA that was found incidentally. First, we consider treating the BAA with embolization by interventional radiology (IVR). However, because of strong meandering of the bronchial artery, we could not advance a microcatheter into the BAA. Therefore, a surgical operation was performed through a standard posterior lateral thoracotomy. The BAA was located between the upper and lower lobes and directly connected to the pulmonary artery. Some bronchial artery branches that provided inflow to the aneurysm were ligated, and the abnormal vessel that connected the BAA to the upper pulmonary vein was ligated easily. A fistula between the BAA and pulmonary artery was sutured by the cardiovascular surgeon using an artificial cardiopulmonary device, with permissive stenosis of A2b (ascending A2).
We describe a rare case of newly discovered pulmonary metastases and surgical confirmation 12 years after initial surgery for a pheochromocytoma. A 61-year-old asymptomatic man was referred because of an abnormal shadow in the right lung field upon chest radiography. Computed tomography (CT) showed two well-demarcated tumors in the basal segment of the right lung. Twelve years previously, he underwent right adrenalectomy and was pathologically diagnosed as having a benign pheochromocytoma. Thereafter, he received a medical check-up annually. To confirm the diagnosis of two pulmonary tumors, video-assisted thoracic surgery was done and wedge resection of the right lower lobe completed. Pathology studies revealed these tumors as pulmonary metastases from the pheochromocytoma, which indicated that the true diagnosis was a malignant pheochromocytoma. Patients with a benign pheochromocytoma should continue to undergo careful monitoring for a long time after the initial surgical procedure. Thoracic surgeons should be aware of the possibility of pulmonary metastases even if >10 years have passed since initial resection of a benign pheochromocytoma.
Intraoperative bleeding from the distal anastomotic site during graft replacement of the arch to distal arch via median sternotomy to treat an aortic aneurysm is sometimes difficult to control because of the limited distal view. I herein report a case in which I addressed this uncontrollable bleeding using a commercialized frozen elephant trunk.