With the diversification of scholastic ability rapidly advancing, the compelling need for meticulous teaching responding to various proficiency levels is greater than ever, and teachers must promote the out-of-classroom study time of students to help achieve the substantiation of credit hours. Under such circumstances, the utilization of e-learning and films have been attracting much attention, the former as an educational method that flexibly caters to individual differences and the latter as highly effective materials for student motivation. Thus, in this study, a film-based e-learning course was developed with the use of public domain films and an experiment was conducted to verify whether the use of a film-based e-learning course promotes out-of-classroom learning activities and results in an increase in study time and improved English language proficiency. The results revealed that the use of a film-based e-learning course was effective to a certain degree in promoting out-of-classroom learning activities and thus increasing the length of overall study time. The results also revealed that its use helped improve the listening abilities of learners. Significant differences, however, were not observed compared with the conventional method. The implications of these findings are also discussed.
English teachers all have known that culture is a topic of interest for the past few years. To enhance cultural awareness, a lot of cultural materials are produced. Language and culture cannot be separated. In EFL classroom, it is natural to emphasize the importance of cultural awareness. To understand a speaker's culture is helpful to achieve fluent and natural communication. However, English teachers need to recognize that the overemphasis on cultural awareness might discourage conversation. With a lack of cross-cultural knowledge, students might have some trouble in a fluent conversation. However, it can be overcome by longer and more frequent conversation. This study emphasizes that it is more important to maintain a conversation than to be fixed on cross-cultural knowledge.
Many university students have entered universities without adequately understanding what they learned in high school, or even junior high school. Therefore, much interest has been devoted to remedial education in Japan. Study 1 and Study 2 were undertaken to reveal whether Little Charo, an NHK English education program, is desirable or not as English remedial material for university students emphasizing the study of child psychology. In Study 1, a variety of frequency-based lexical analyses were carried out. The results revealed that Little Charo included basic English vocabulary and expressions taught in junior high and high schools. In Study 2, participants were 32 second-year university students at a private college taking 15 lessons during April-July in 2010. During the lessons, they watched a video presentation of Little Charo, read a colorful text of Little Charo, and studied from Gogakulu, a learning site accessible through the NHK homepage. Study 2 analyzed students' responses to questionnaires based on the ARCS model of motivational design. Results show that the English lessons using Little Charo were enjoyable, challenging, confidence-building, and otherwise rewarding for the participating students. Study 1 and Study 2 revealed that it is suitable English remedial material for students involved in child-related studies.
Large numbers of English -ly adverbs involve more than one usage. The literature of linguistics frequently notes the semantic alternation of manner adverbs and the sentential usage of -ly adverbs. Most -ly adverbs are derived from their adjectival stem with the addition of the suffix -ly. Although meanings of -ly adverbs can be roughly understood in terms of their adjective stems found in dictionaries, these descriptions are often not sufficient to comprehend the various functions of -ly adverbs. This paper attempts to propose an effective method to teach conversational usages of -ly adverbs by using data from movies. These -ly adverbs, retrieved from 50 movies with a total number of 1904 examples, are divided into six main types based on their semantic function. This paper focuses on three types of noteworthy usages: "sentential," "manner," and "responsive" -ly adverbs. Lastly, the paper demonstrates the complexity of these adverbs. I advocate the in-class use of movies with these kinds of ambiguous movie subtitles as an aide to comprehend the semantics of -ly adverbs. The ambiguity of the subtitles becomes an asset to the students as they attempt to work out the actual semantics of the -ly adverbs.
English vocatives differ in types, usages and frequency of use from those of Japanese, therefore, for smooth communication in globalized business environments, it is beneficial for the Japanese to understand the use of English vocatives as part of communication in English. In this study, 9 movies featuring American business environments were selected, and relationships between vocatives and speakers' genders and business ranks were analyzed. Results revealed that LN (Last Name), which is said to be used in restricted environments such as the military and public schools, was the most frequently used vocative following FN (First Name). Because the abovementioned environments have commonality that they place a high value on observing a chain of command, it is natural that the vocative is also relatively common in business environments. LN was dominantly used among male business people to 1) assert authority or have commanding presence, 2) express anger, or 3) show solidarity. For communication between female business people, FN was the only vocative used regardless of their ranks. This implies that FN could be used to show equality and solidarity among female business people working in the still male dominating business environments.
This paper analytically and pedagogically deals with what Levin and Rapport (1988) call "a hole construction." Levin and Rapport argue that hole constructions, just like resultative constructions and one's way constructions, describe results (= a hole) brought about by the action denoted by their verbs. The hole construction may be particularly hard for Japanese learners of English to break in, not only because a construction of this nature doesn't exist in the Japanese language, but also because it comes in many different patterns, even though the basic template seems to be fixed. The author gleans as many as 70 examples of the hole construction mainly by using the movie database version 3 (2009), which was compiled for academic purposes with a few other ATEM Kansai Chapter members. Based on the database results, the author develops a formula and a revised template for the hole construction. The author concurrently suggests a way for teachers and learners to make the most of this so-called polysemous construction in the latter half of the discussion. Given in the appendix is a streamlined list of the 70 hole construction examples, which may come in handy for those who wish to put the seemingly kaleidoscopic and yet versatile construction into action in the classroom settings.
This paper examines how stereotyping is effectively used as binary oppositions in movies by analyzing expressions useed in Pocahontas and images observed in Black Swan, and discusses how to use movies appropriately in class in terms of intercultural communication and literacy. The first part defines stereotypes and explains how stereotyping arises and affects intercultural communication. The second part explains binary oppositions and analyzes how they are used in American movies by highlighting the expressions for Native Americans and European settlers observed in Pocahontas. The third part focuses on the stereotyped multiple personalities in Black Swan. In Black Swan, the images of the prima ballerina, Nina, who simultaneously plays the part of the White Swan, Odette, and its antagonistic Black Swan, Odile, in Swan Lake appear as stereotyped multiple personalities on screen. Finally, the last part discusses how to deal with the stereotyped images depicted in movies when using them in class for successful intercultural communication.
This study clarifies formal patterns of motion events in Japanese and in French by examining those in English, such as "The bottle floated down the river." This contrastive examination will allow learners to better understand expressions of motion events in English. This study presents examples from English movies and subsequently investigates the corresponding Japanese forms. Additionally, it provides examples of French subtitles from movies, most of which have less information than original English expressions but are interestingly proper as an utterance in each scene. Examining the French examples revealed that French has not only a characteristic found in Japanese but also one in English, which contradicts the widely held claim that it has tendency to have the same characteristic as Japanese (Talmy, 1985, 2000). Additionally, Japanese utterance forms appear more suitable to English motion expressions than those forms that have a precisely corresponding meaning; this offers learners the ability to make translations into Japanese using diverse styles.
In any social interaction, participants risk losing face. In particular, refusing a friend's request or kind invitation can represent a major face-threatening act and hurt the addressee's feelings. Refusals usually include a series of semantic formulas. When responding negatively to an invitation to a family party, for instance, we would say, "I'd love to, but I havesome work to do. Maybe some other time." Thus, a positive statement is followed by the reason and an alternative. The negotiation will be longer and more elaborate depending on the social factors and what the speaker is going to refuse. Indirect speech acts are often preferred and adjuncts are added in order to redress the face-threatening behavior. This paper first discusses how Japanese learners of English refuse a request and an offer. Some of the distinctive features are (1) adjuncts are less frequently used, (2) the reasons are ambiguous, and (3) an expression of apology appears too often. The refusal scenes from films and dramas are then observed and analyzed in terms of social factors and semantic formulas, and compared with data from the Japanese learners. Finally, effective refusal strategies are introduced in classroom practice.