The purpose of this paper is five-fold:1) to shed light on how traditional grammar has failed to describe spoken language and highlight many important colloquial expressions; 2) to describe the differences between spoken and written language and summarize a wide range of previously identified linguistic traits of colloquial language; 3) to illustrate how physical and psychological conditions affect the way people speak or write in casual settings by identifying some of the physical and psychological constraints and factors peculiar to casual (quasi-) face-to-face oral and written interactions and how they affect the way people produce messages; 4) to propose a typology framework to clarify and give shape to lexicogrammatical and discourse features pertaining to colloquial English; 5) to exemplify the benefits of the framework for learners, teachers, researchers, and textbook writers (materials developers).
This study reports on the use and effect of the film-based WBT courses. With the diversification of scholastic ability rapidly advancing, there is a great need for meticulous teaching responding to various proficiency levels. In that context, films have great potential as effective teaching materials for their motivational effect. Their use, however, is likely to be limited to within the classroom due to the copyright restrictions, and it's not easy to extend their effect to out-of-classroom study. Also, the substantial time and effort required for producing teaching materials are often a burden on teachers who use films in their classes. Thus, in order to accommodate the needs of those teachers, two WBT courses were developed with the use of public domain films. These multilevel courses aim to support learners in their out-of-classroom study, as well as to help teachers produce teaching materials of varied proficiency levels. An experiment was conducted in this study to verify the effectiveness of the courses. The results revealed that the WBT courses were effective in helping improve the listening abilities of learners of different proficiency levels. The implications of the findings are also discussed.
In his speech celebrating the 237^<th> anniversary of the founding of the United States, President Barack Obama referred to America as "a land of liberty and opportunity." The Declaration of Independence, moreover, states that "all men are created equal" and that "they are endowed by their creator with certain inalienable Rights." Among them is freedom of speech. However, whose freedom of speech should be protected? When a country consists of diverse people from different cultural and religious backgrounds, their principles and beliefs can sometimes clash. Those people who feel uncomfortable with certain expressions often complain and demand that the government, or schools, ban them. This paper examines a frequently challenged book -Where the Wild Things Are- and its film version. Why has the book been controversial? What problematic scenes does the movie contain? Does violence or bad language have no place in children's literature?
The aim of this paper is to present a methodology for verification of correct usage, based on three information sources: TV drama corpora (LOST and FRIENDS), English dictionaries and the judgment of native speakers. TV drama corpora which clearly specify usage situations are suitable for understanding the whole context of usage. Conrad (2010) supposes that corpus plays an active role in investigations of language use and uncovering typical patterns rather than making judgments of acceptability. This study, based on Conrad's point of view, concludes first that corpus data should be available to detect usage trends, and second that the multi-strata approach composed of the three information sources is essential for the verification of correct usage. This study focuses on two English expressions, "go out" and "have a talk", and it is shown that "go out" cannot be used to describe a trip to outside of town, and "have a talk" should not be used to describe "have a chat".
This short paper is a sequel to Kurata (2012), which focuses primarily on scrutinizing what kinds of verb are most likely to occur in what Levin and Rapoport (1988) call the "a hole" construction. Kurata (2012) also attempts to develop a template for this enigmatic construction. By reviewing a few prior relevant surveys and reexamining the 70 movie data gleaned for the above-mentioned 2012 research and a couple of additional examples, this follow-up paper brings to light a few unique behaviors of the "a hole" construction. It also compares the "a hole" construction with the "one's way" construction, both of which are considered to be constructional idioms. This academic work then puts forward a few linguistic similarities and differences found between the two seemingly kindred linguistic phenomena, and moves on to question whether we may safely regard the "a hole" construction as a bona fide constructional idiom.
The English present perfect tense is studied in junior high schools. However, a study shows that it is one of three grammatical items that university students understand least. Over the years, scholars have claimed that grammar studied in isolation does not enable learners to fully understand the functions of those grammatical items and improve their communicative skills. One wonders, however, have these voices been heard? The latest version of the government curriculum guidelines for English education has finally included a clear statement saying: the purpose of grammar learning is to enhance learners' English communicative skills. Sadly, despite these claims, grammar lessons have continued to be done mechanistically, detached from communicative English learning. This paper focuses on locating "the core" of the present perfect tense in order to discover an effective way to teach it as a part of communicative learning.
This paper aims to reconsider the conventional idea that movies are rich repositories of 'practical' expressions. To figure out whether students use movie expressions practically, students' actual conversations were analyzed. Before a conversation began, students had learned English using the scripts of American TV drama Desperate Housewives. The results show that students hardly utilized memorized expressions at first, but they slowly created sentences based on their understanding of grammar. Then they started to partially use chunks of expressions. Then they started to imitate structure patterns of the movie expressions. Finally they used the whole expressions whenever they met the same situations as in the movie. However, learned expressions are of no practical use at this point. This is rather a prerequisite stage for the final stage where movie expressions play a practical role. Finally, which is named 'prefab + prefab' in this paper, students created sentences with new meanings by combining the chunks of expressions. Although the results did not show a significant number of 'prefab + prefab' utterances, there was an indication of potentiality. This paper concludes that movies can be excellent materials with which students can develop remarkable abilities to express themselves if they use the expressions practically.
The purpose of this study is to investigate university students' attitudes toward their English learning, and to suggest a learning method suitable for university students. Brown (2007) states that knowing the characteristics of learners is the first step for language teaching, but there are few studies of university students' characteristics. In this study, five university students were selected randomly to participate in a two month examination of their learning styles. The results were as follows: university students wanted a teacher's supervision, attention, coercion and compulsion. They are also highly dependent on their teacher and are influenced by their peers. Finally it was considered that instruction was needed. For this, KakaoTalk was exploited with a TV sitcom, Modern Family (Spiller, 2011). It is considered that using movies or TV sitcoms as materials is effective in improving university students' communicative competence and that memorizing expressions from movies is the best way to use them. This study suggests the following: 1) translate Modern Family into Korean off line. 2) read the script aloud for 30 minutes and then record student voices. 3) select the expressions which they liked in the reading. 4) write a scenario using those expressions. 5) evaluate each other's' scenarios using KakaoTalk to talk about whether the selected sentences are appropriately used and then give some feedback.
This paper proposes an effective teaching method to enhance Japanese college students' understanding and use of English phrasal verbs. Phrasal verbs play a crucial role in English and are frequently used in everyday conversation. However, they present particular difficulties to learners of English because of their syntactic and semantic complexities. These factors prevent students from paying attention to the meanings of these verbs and their particles. This study examines how to teach phrasal verbs based on their degree of cohesiveness. It also demonstrates how the meaning of verbs and particles are combined, making use of key concepts such as core meanings and container metaphors. The particles in phrasal verbs generally indicate the movement of actions more clearly than one-word verbs without particles. The challenge is to teach students how to infer the derivational meanings of phrasal verbs. For this, contextual knowledge can be helpful, as previous studies have pointed out. Movies are an effective medium that enables students to predict the meaning of phrasal verbs as well as obtain contextual knowledge. Finally, the author introduces a teaching method for phrasal verbs with the particles up and off using material from Harry Potter movie series.
Due to the influence of the communicative approach from the 1980s, literary texts have been less used as part of English education in Japan despite their potential. Reading focused on spatial prepositions and adverbs leads readers to find psychological meanings in characters' behaviors or spatial positions. Alternatively, film adaptations have explicit and tacit descriptions derived from the physical and abstract descriptions in literary texts. This paper examines whether using films in reading literature affects English learners' awareness of characters' behaviors, spatial positions, and mind. A one-shot experiment was carried out with 44 English learners (university students) over three months (13 observations). In assessing the portfolios by the learners, awareness about the literary text used gradually increased, while inferring meanings from the film decreased from observation Nos. 9 to 13. In addition, the concepts 'detailedness of literary texts' and 'reconsidering literary texts from films' were found by analysis of the portfolio data through Modified Grounded Theory Approach (Kinoshita, 2003). In conclusion, explicit and tacit descriptions in films have a positive effect on literary awareness during each stage of the learning process.
Some critics say that in most road movies, elderlies represent stability and tradition. However, the lives of two old widowers in "About Schmidt" (2002) and "Everybody's Fine" (2009), tell the viewers to reexamine the patriarchal family structure and to move beyond the sex roles and crossover their roles successfully in our later lives. In the movies, the fathers are the bread winners and the mothers are the homemakers. Traditional sex-roles are observed in both of these families. The mothers act as the mediators between children and their busy fathers. Therefore, when the mothers are gone, the fathers and the children are faced with difficulties in communicating with each other. Being retired, fathers also lose connections with their social lives. As a result, they experience social marginalization which has a devastating impact on their self-esteem. Betty Friedan suggests if people hold on to the conventional sex roles, they would be thrown into crisis in their later years when they experience various changes in their lives. She suggests men and women should move beyond the gender line and make a crossover. By looking at the two road movies the paper examines how crossover helps the widowers reunite with their families and regain their homes.