This paper is intended to report on the results of research studies on closed-captioned television or video materials conducted during the past 15 years in the United States where this technology was originally developed, and suggests what implications this may have for the EFL classroom in Japan. The findings appear to confirm the view that captioned video materials are a powerful motivating tool and can be successfully used in Japan not only for improving students' listening comprehension, but also for reading and vocabulary development. Suggestions for further research are also included.
In this paper the author reviewed 191 studies in the United States and 35 studies in Japan concerning the educational use of captioned materials. The subjects of the studies in Japan are all hearing whereas 71 % of those of the studies in the United States are deaf and hard-of-hearing people. Primary emphasis is placed on reading skills in the United States while a variety of areas are examined in Japan. From the perspective of how comprehension ability develops overtime, more longitudinal studies are needed, both in the United States and in Japan, to investigate the effects of captioned materials on learners. The author also reviewed a brief history of teletext and introduced the current situation of captioning in the United States.
An assumption of this thesis is emphasis on language usage will create individual differences in acquisition. On this assumption, movies are recommended as a tool to emphasize language use, especially in such a learning environment as an EFL classroom at school, one which emphasizes language usage. In exploring factors to create individual differences in acquisition, cognitive styles as well as motivational factors are discussed in relation to the learning environment which emphasizes language usage. Then, an EFL classroom at school is examined and discussed in terms of probability of emphasis on language usage. As a result of examinations, factors to imply emphasis on language usage are pointed out and an EFL classroom at school is theoretically proved to be an environment that may develop learning styles focusing on language usage. Validity of movies as a tool to emphasize language use is then implied.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the effect on EFL learners' listening abilities through learning sound changes in movie English . The subjects were ninety-seven freshman students at a college in Niigata. They were given a series of aural/oral practices focusing on sound changes in movie English during the second semester in 1996. The movie was selected according to the learners' interest and the target scenes used in each lesson were adopted for the aim of this study, that is to say, teaching sound changes. The subjects studied how to listen to and enunciate expressions which contain sound changes in rapid colloquial style occurring in the scenes, and by altering some of the model expressions to fit more closely with their own experiences, the subjects utilized sound change expressions themselves. The data of listening abilities of the subjects were analyzed by ANOVA, while that of the learners' motivation were analyzed by X^2 test. The results of this study indicated that the subjects improved significantly in understanding English sound changes, and that they were very well motivated in studying sound changes in rapid colloquial style occurring in the movie English.
In this article, it was examined whether learners' motivation to study English was enhanced by showing movies to the learners who seemed to lack motivation for English learning. The research was carried out by action research. The hypothesis is that learners' motivation is enhanced by showing movies to the learners. Four movies were shown to the learners in the first 15 term hours. After the movies ware shown, learners' motivation for English learning was evaluated by questionnaire. The results stated that the 60% of the learners who like studying English and also the 50% who don't, reported that watching movies made them motivated. It is thought that showing movies has the effect of enhancing the learners' motivation, even for the learners who don't like learning English. It is judged that the hypothesis is supported from this result.
Though research on improving listening skills through the use of movies has been advancing, little has been conducted with regard to intercultural education in English language teaching. The purpose of this paper thus is to demonstrate a method for intercultural communication education using the film "Mr. Baseball." Specifically the purpose is three-fold. First, I will review the literature on the research regarding the intercultural learning process and models for intercultural adaptation. Second, on the basis of the framework of the intercultural learning process, I will make a material analysis of the film. More concretely, I will divide the film into three parts, reciprocal denial stage, discord stage, and reciprocal adaptation stage. Third, I will propose a practical application for teaching intercultural communication employing the results of the material analysis.