AUDIOLOGY JAPAN
Online ISSN : 1883-7301
Print ISSN : 0303-8106
ISSN-L : 0303-8106
Volume 49 , Issue 4
Showing 1-16 articles out of 16 articles from the selected issue
  • [in Japanese]
    2006 Volume 49 Issue 4 Pages 299-300
    Published: August 31, 2006
    Released: August 05, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • [in Japanese]
    2006 Volume 49 Issue 4 Pages 300-305
    Published: August 31, 2006
    Released: August 05, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • [in Japanese]
    2006 Volume 49 Issue 4 Pages 306-309
    Published: August 31, 2006
    Released: August 05, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • [in Japanese]
    2006 Volume 49 Issue 4 Pages 309-317
    Published: August 31, 2006
    Released: August 05, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • [in Japanese]
    2006 Volume 49 Issue 4 Pages 317-319
    Published: August 31, 2006
    Released: August 05, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • [in Japanese]
    2006 Volume 49 Issue 4 Pages 320-321
    Published: August 31, 2006
    Released: August 05, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Jun Kusakari
    2006 Volume 49 Issue 4 Pages 322-338
    Published: August 31, 2006
    Released: August 05, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The auditory brainstem response (ABR) appears within 10msec after the onset of sound stimulus and reflects electrical events evoked in the auditory tract from the cochlea to the midbrain. Since this response is highly reproducible regardless of the sleep depth or the consciousness level of the test subjects, it is widely used in audiological studies of clinical medicine. In this report, the generation of the ABR and its significance in clinical audiology is described, together with a review of the available medical literature. In conclusion, the ABR is extremely valuable for objective audiometry, the diagnosis of 8th nerve/brainstem disorders, or intraoperative monitoring of the auditory system during posterior cranial fossa surgery.
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  • Tatsuo Matsunaga
    2006 Volume 49 Issue 4 Pages 339-345
    Published: August 31, 2006
    Released: August 05, 2010
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    Recently, significant progress has been made in the identification of genes causing deafness. In parallel, genetic testing and counseling for hereditary deafness have gradually become available in conventional clinical practice. This review describes the background of genetic counseling for deafness and research on the application of genetic information to the management of hearing loss and auditory and speech/language rehabilitation, focusing on the involvement of connexin 26 gene mutations and the A1555G mitochondrial DNA mutation. In genetic counseling for hereditary deafness, the main topics are the explanation of identified genes causing deafness and the risk of inheritance and the implications of genetic results to the management of hearing and speech/language and auditory rehabilitation. Genetic counsellors must understand the indications and processes for genetic testing and counseling as well as what their clients need to know and what will be helpful. Collaboration with institutes specializing in hereditary deafness is recommended. A team approach including specialists for audiology, genetics, rehabilitation, education, and welfare is necessary because of the wide range of issues with which otolaryngologists are usually not familar. For syndromic hearing loss, medical doctors in related fields should also be included in the team.
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  • Shin-ichi Usami
    2006 Volume 49 Issue 4 Pages 346-352
    Published: August 31, 2006
    Released: August 05, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    One of the remarkable aspects associated with the identification of genes involved in hearing is that clinicians can sometimes make a molecular diagnosis by genetic testing. Such diagnoses are highly accurate and result in a considerable improvement in the predictability of hearing loss severity and associated abnormalities, the selection of appropriate habilitation options, and genetic counseling. GJB2 is currently recognized as the most prevalent gene responsible for congenital hearing loss. SLC26A4 is responsible for both Pendred syndrome and non-syndromic hearing loss associated with an enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) and has also been demonstrated to be commonly responsible for recessive deafness. The 1555A→G mitochondrial mutation, known to be associated with a susceptibility to aminoglycoside antibiotics, has been identified as the most prevalent mitochondrial mutation. Our series of screening studies indicated that GJB2, SLC26A4, and the 1555A→G mitochondrial mutation were found to be the major causes of hearing loss in Japanese patients. In spite of progress in the identification of deafness genes, clinical application has lagged because of the genetic heterogeneity of deafness. Genetic screening based on recurrent mutations and ethnic databases of deafness genes using the Invader assay may be an appropriate strategy for the molecular diagnosis of deafness.
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  • Ai Hibino, Mariko Takahashi, Taeko Makino, Shingo Murakami, Futoshi Ma ...
    2006 Volume 49 Issue 4 Pages 353-358
    Published: August 31, 2006
    Released: August 05, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In recent years, tinnitus retraining therapy (TRT) has been reported to alleviate the symptoms of tinnitus; however, whether a correlation exists between tinnitus and the subject's state of mind remains controversial. Therefore, the relationship between them. These two factors should be examined. Twenty-three (14 men and 9 women) individuals suffering from tinnitus were asked to take the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). We then compared their scores with those of normal subjects using the Japanese version of the MMPI. The comparison showed that individuals suffering from tinnitus had higher scores on the hypochondria and depression scales. In addition, eight of the individuals suffering from tinnitus scored more than 70 points for the T scores covering the 14 standards of the MMPI. Seven of these eight individuals also obtained over 58 points on their first define. These results suggest that a psychological assessment may be necessary for the effective treatment of individuals who suffer from tinnitus.
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  • Mana Ohwaki, Futoshi Matsuda, Keisuke Watanabe, Yuka Oguni, Yoshimasa ...
    2006 Volume 49 Issue 4 Pages 359-366
    Published: August 31, 2006
    Released: August 05, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Tinnitus retraining therapy (TRT) is a tinnitus treatment method advocated by Jastreboff and Hazel and based on the neurophysiology system. It consists of referential counseling and sound treatment to habituate tinnitus. TRT is effective for about 80% of tinnitus sufferers. Reinforcedtinnitus retraining therapy (R-TRT), which includes an interview with a clinical psychologist, can further improve the therapeutic gain. Since 2002, R-TRT has been performed at Kasugai Municipal Hospital. A tinnitus distress improvement program was created based on our experience with R-TRT. The content of this program and a qualitative change in the interview process are reported here. Subjects whose define did not improve were treated using R-TRT.
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  • Rie Yamada, Seiko Fujiwara, Takenori Miyashita, Nozomu Mori, Keiko Och ...
    2006 Volume 49 Issue 4 Pages 367-372
    Published: August 31, 2006
    Released: August 05, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Here, we report several problematic aspects in a profoundly hearing-impaired child with cochlear implants and deaf parents. The parents strongly wanted their child to undergo cochlear implantation to enable the acquisition of spoken language, even though they were able to communicate fluently with each other at home using sign language. The importance of a proper environment for the acquisition of spoken language and the difficulties in acquiring auditory skills after the operation were thoroughly explained to the parents, but they did not change their minds. Therefore, we considered that the lack of a spoken language at home might be compensated for by environmental maintenance outside the home; this and a lack of other medical problemsled us to judge him to be a candidate for cochlear implantation. However, a change in his educational environment at home that occurred postoperatively caused his hearing use to stagnate. Cooperation and teamwork among the local community, a day nursery, and a day care center for children with impaired hearing played a critical role in minimizing the deterioration.
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  • Yoshiyuki Kawashima, Hiroaki Sato, Makito Okamoto, Tsutomu Nakashima, ...
    2006 Volume 49 Issue 4 Pages 373-380
    Published: August 31, 2006
    Released: August 05, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The Acute Profound Deafness Research Committee of the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Walfare conducted an epidemiological survey in Kanagawa and Iwate Prefectures to determine the number of patients treated for acute low-tone sensorineural hearing loss between April 2004 and March 2005. Based on the committee's findings, the incidence of acute low-tone sensorineural hearing loss was estimated to be 42.8 per 100000 persons in Kanagawa Prefecture and 65.7 per 100000 persons in Iwate Prefecture. The age distributions showed definite peaks in the fourth decade in both men and women with a mean age of 37.7 years. The sex ratio (men vs. women) was 0.33. The overall curative ratio was 61.0%. The incidence of patients who developed Meniere disease was 1.8%. The curative ratio was higher in patients who were under 39 years of age than in those who were over 40 years.
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  • Hiroyuki Nakayama, Toshie Kato, Kastumi Asami, Taku Hattori, Yasuko Sh ...
    2006 Volume 49 Issue 4 Pages 381-387
    Published: August 31, 2006
    Released: August 05, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The aim of this study was to identify the indications, specifically the hearing levels, for cochlear implants. Twenty-five children with profound sensorineural hearing impairments and cochlear implants (6 to 11 years old, prelingual hearing loss) and 61 children with mild to profound hearing impairments and hearing aids (6 to 17 years old, prelingual or perilingual hearing loss) for a long term (more than three years) were evaluated. Their speech perception abilities were evaluated using our original speech perception tests, and questionnaires were distributed to their parents at home. As a result, the speech perception ability of cochlear implantees with only a single hearing loss disability was equivalent to that of hearing-aid users with a mean hearing level (0.5, 1, 2 and 4kHz) of 70 to 79dB (HL). Therefore, children with a hearing level of 90dB or more were considered to be candidates for cochlear implantation. Since the mean aided-hearing levels of hearing aid users at the 70dB and 90dB levels were 41dB and 53dB, respectively, children with a mean aided-hearing level of more than 50dB after hearing aid adjustments should also be considered candidates for cochlear implantation.
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  • Tatsuhiko Harada, Jin Kanzaki
    2006 Volume 49 Issue 4 Pages 388-394
    Published: August 31, 2006
    Released: August 05, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A new measurement system for detecting fluctuations in distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) was developed using a Kalman filtering approach. With this system, DPOAE fluctuations in response to changing stimulus levels and to changing suppressor tone levels were measured in two normal hearing subjects. In the first experiment, the stimulus tones were 4000Hz·70 dBSPL and 4800Hz·60 dBSPL with a 5Hz 100% amplitude modulation. In both subjects, the 2f1-f2 component of the DPOAE periodically changed in keeping with the cycle of stimulus levels but with a 40-50 millisecond delay. In the second experiment, the levels of the stimulus tones were kept constant, but a third tone of 5000Hz·70 dBSPL with a 5Hz 100% amplitude modulation was added to the stimulus tones as a DPOAE suppressor. In both subjects, the 2f1-f2 component of the DPOAE was maximally suppressed from the peaks of the suppressor tone after a dilay of about 40-50 miliseconds. These results indicate that a Kalman filtering approach is useful for detecting fluctuations in DPOAE. This approach has advantages over previously reported approaches in that it enables real-time processing and parallel processing to multiple frequency components. This approach will contribute to the elucidation of cochlear function in response to time, variable tones, such as speech sounds.
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  • Mari Ito, Keiko Soma, Yukie Kohama, Koji Sakamoto
    2006 Volume 49 Issue 4 Pages 395-400
    Published: August 31, 2006
    Released: August 05, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Forty-three patients (23 men, 20 women) complaining of severe tinnitus were seen at the Department of Otolaryngology, Nippon Koukan Hospital, and the Koukan Clinic during a six-month period starting in October 2003. We evaluated the recovery of tinnitus using a questionnire. The average scores for awareness of tinnitus loudness and level of annoyance improved after treatment with etizoram and tinnitus retraining therapy (TRT). Both the tinnitus handicap inventory (THI) score and the loudness balance test results improved in all five patients treated with TRT who were followed up after 6 months of treatment. Our results indicated that TRT was an effective treatment for tinnitus.
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