AUDIOLOGY JAPAN
Online ISSN : 1883-7301
Print ISSN : 0303-8106
ISSN-L : 0303-8106
Volume 61 , Issue 6
December
Showing 1-11 articles out of 11 articles from the selected issue
Review articles
  • Takuji Koike, Sinyoung Lee
    2018 Volume 61 Issue 6 Pages 525-530
    Published: December 28, 2018
    Released: January 17, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    DPOAEs are acoustic phenomena which are considered to be generated by the activity (excitation force) of the outer hair cells (OHCs) when the cochlea is stimulated by a complex tone consisting of two tones. Levels of the distortion components are generally considered to be correlated with the hearing level. However, the relationship between the generated distortion components and the excitation force of the OHC at each part of the basilar membrane (BM) has not yet been clarified. In this study, the relationship was investigated using finite-element human cochlear models having non-active portions of the BM. A complex tone (f1 and f2) was applied to the head of the stapes, and distortion components of 2f1-f2 on the stapes and at each point of the BM were calculated. The level of the distortion components was lower than that of the normal cochlea when non-active portions were introduced at the more basal region from the characteristic frequency (CF) point of f2. This result suggests that the activity of the OHCs at the more basal part from the CF point of f2 plays critical roles in the generation DPOAEs.

    Download PDF (490K)
Original articles
  • Eri Kubota, Azusa Sakurai, Masahiro Takahashi, Sakiko Furutate, Jyun S ...
    2018 Volume 61 Issue 6 Pages 531-537
    Published: December 28, 2018
    Released: January 17, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     In 2017, the indications for adult cochlear implants were revised in Japan, as follows; 1) severe sensorineural hearing loss with a pure tone hearing average (PTA) of over 90dB, and 2) PTA is more than 70dB, but less than 90dB, and maximum speech discrimination score while using hearing aids is lessor than 50%. In this study, we examined the validity of the new indication criteria from the relationship between PTA and the maximum discrimination score of unaided, and the relationship between PTA and the maximum discrimination score in users of hearing aids and cochlear implants.
     The subjects were 37 adults with cochlear implants and 77 adults wearing hearing aids
     .The results revealed a negative correlation between the PTA and the maximum discrimination score calculated for unaided. The maximum discrimination score at a PTA of 70dBHL was 45%. Comparison between users of hearing aids and those with cochlear implants revealed, that the discrimination score in both groups was 70dBHL of the PTA (50%). At the hearing level of 70dBHL or more, the speech discrimination score decreased further in users of hearing aids, while it increased in users of cochlear implants.
     It would seem necessary to verify the indication criteria for cochlear implants from early on in the future, due to the technical advantage of hearing preservation due to progress in medical technology and improvement of hearing performance.
    Download PDF (472K)
  • Akira Nohara, Eiko Hirota
    2018 Volume 61 Issue 6 Pages 538-545
    Published: December 28, 2018
    Released: January 17, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     We examined the understanding of another's intention in conversation in 45 children with hearing impairment as compared with that in 232 children of the same age with normal hearing. Three kinds of task scenes were set as context-conscious conditions requiring understanding using social knowledge and conditions without context, and the reply was requested by description.
     The results suggested that children who are hard of hearing had delay in understanding intention using social knowledge, especially in tasks requiring interpersonal consideration. The relevance of the language ability as a factor to the delay was high, while there was no correlation with the hearing level.
     The language ability to understand another's intention by using social knowledge is acquired from the latter part of childhood to the age of schoolchildren, but even when simple conversation is not hindered, the language development problems of hearing-impaired children are overlooked. Instead, it is necessary to consider the application of guidance.
    Download PDF (461K)
  • Chikashi Kyan, Toyohiko Hamada
    2018 Volume 61 Issue 6 Pages 546-554
    Published: December 28, 2018
    Released: January 17, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     We investigated the relationship between the utilization of prosodic information and auditory function (frequency discrimination limen and time resolution) in hearing-impaired children. The children were asked to select one syntactic ambiguity statement with a threshold (25dBSL) which has 2 semantic interpretations. The statements were prosodic tasks (pitch task and pause task) processed at where the syntactic boundary occurs due to change of prosody. As auditory function, the pure tone and broadband noise were used to measure the frequency discrimination limen and time resolution, respectively.
     The results showed that hearing-impaired children had a tendency towards superior temporal processing as compared to frequency processing. Although there is a significant difference between utilization of prosodic information and auditory function, it is necessary to perform examinations from the perspective of individual language competence.
    Download PDF (542K)
  • Shiho Sasaki, Chie Obuchi, Tetsuaki Kawase
    2018 Volume 61 Issue 6 Pages 555-561
    Published: December 28, 2018
    Released: January 17, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Objectives: In this study, we examined the development of adverbial expressions both qualitatively and quantitatively in children with and without hearing loss.
    Methods: The subjects were 22 school-aged children with normal hearing and 7 children wearing hearing aid devices. They were administered the adverb production task which consisted of 15 short sentences. Subjects were asked to fill in the appropriate adverb as much as possible to qualify the sentence.
    Results: The results showed that the expression of adverbs increased with age in hearing children both children without and with hearing impairment, however, the latter's use of adverbs differed from that in children with normal hearing.
    Discussion: We suggest that it is important to take notice the variety of adverbs in the sentence to do adequate language training for children with hearing loss.
    Download PDF (714K)
  • Shintaro Ohtsuka, Tadashi Nishimura, Chihiro Morimoto, Kazuhiko Nario, ...
    2018 Volume 61 Issue 6 Pages 562-567
    Published: December 28, 2018
    Released: January 17, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     There are triggers behind non-organic hearing loss, for example accidents, or school problems. Recognizing and eliminating the triggers would contribute to improved hearing. The relationship between the timing of eliminating triggers and the length of time for hearing improvement was evaluated. The subjects were 38 patients (25 females) who were diagnosed over the previous 9 years and had not undergone treatment. They ranged in age from 7 to 72 years (median of 14 years). The patients were classified according to whether their triggers were eliminated soon after hearing loss or not. No differences were found in the sex distribution, age and laterality between the two groups. Furthermore, no differences were found between groups in hearing levels at the first or last visits, or in the improvement in hearing between these visits. However, the period required for hearing levels to stabilize was significantly shorter in patients whose triggers were eliminated early (28.5 days vs. 214 days, p=0.011). The observation period was also shorter in the group with early elimination of triggers (67 days vs. 350 days, p=0.0014). This study revealed that early elimination of triggers led to earlier improvement in patients with non-organic hearing loss.
    Download PDF (438K)
  • Sawako Masuda, Satoko Usui, Hiromi Tsuruoka
    2018 Volume 61 Issue 6 Pages 568-575
    Published: December 28, 2018
    Released: January 17, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     To elucidate the progress after Newborn Hearing Screening (NHS), we investigated 328 children who underwent NHS and were referred to us for further examination. The rates of loss to follow-up after confirmed diagnosis were distributed as follows: 6.3% in children with “normal hearing” (6/96 cases), 11.0% in children with “unilateral hearing loss” (13/118 cases), 10.0% in children with “bilateral hearing loss” (11/110 cases), and 25.0% in children classified as “unidentified” (1/4 cases); thus, the total rate of loss to follow-up in the 328 children was 9.5% (n=31). The children who were lost to follow-up had significantly (p=0.006) higher rates of complications, risk factors at birth, and/or a family history of hearing loss, as compared to those who were not lost to follow-up. Nine of the 11 children with bilateral hearing loss who were lost to follow-up had moderate hearing loss. Seven children with bilateral moderate hearing loss stopped visiting the hospital before they could be given hearing aids. It is necessary, while treating children with complications, a family history of hearing loss and/or moderate hearing loss, to share information with the speech therapists in educational institutions and public health nurses from an early stage. It is recommended to give a Hearing Development Checklist to parents of all infants after NHS and encourage them to receive health examination for children.
    Download PDF (474K)
  • Kyoko Shirai, Atushi Kawano, Yusuke Saito, Ayako Tomizawa, Naoko Nonam ...
    2018 Volume 61 Issue 6 Pages 576-582
    Published: December 28, 2018
    Released: January 17, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
     In 40 junior high school students wearing a cochlear implant (CI), we conducted a Norm Referenced Test (NRT) of the Japanese language, which is a relative formal academic examination, expressed in 5-grade rating (grade 5 being the best). We examined the relationship between the academic abilities in the Japanese language and the surgical age at CI surgery, period of wearing the CI, the latest hearing threshold with CI and speech discrimination score, operative intelligence (PIQ) and linguistic intelligence (VIQ) evaluated by WISC, and the school type that the child was enrolled in. The rating of ‘2’ in Japanese language academic achievement was the most frequent, in both “reading” and “writing”. There was no significant correlation between the Japanese language ability and the age at CI surgery, period of wearing CI, latest hearing threshold with CI or the speech discrimination score. On the other hand, there were significant correlations between the Japanese language ability and the VIQ and PIQ, and school type. The rating for “reading” was correlated with the PIQ with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.4, and the VIQ (r=0.6). The rating for “writing” was correlated with the PIQ (r=0.6) and VIQ (r=0.7). The rating for “reading” was correlated with the school type (r=0.50, p<0.01). However, adjustment for the VIQ in partial regression analysis, the relationship between school type and the rating for “writing" could no longer be observed.
    Download PDF (413K)
feedback
Top