AUDIOLOGY JAPAN
Online ISSN : 1883-7301
Print ISSN : 0303-8106
ISSN-L : 0303-8106
Current issue
April
Displaying 1-7 of 7 articles from this issue
Review articles
  • Kotaro Ishikawa
    2022 Volume 65 Issue 2 Pages 107-112
    Published: April 28, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: May 24, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

     Otolaryngologist and speech-language pathologists have many opportunities to be involved in processes such as certification of hearing impairment based on the Law for the Welfare of Physically Disabled Persons and prescription of hearing aids based on the Prosthetic Devices Payment System, which is based on the Comprehensive Support Act for Persons with Disabilities. However, it seems that they have little experience of receiving systematic instructions on these processes at training schools or training institutions. Here, we have explained the basics of these processes using a mock case. Hearing impairment is divided into 6, 4, 3, and 2 grades based on the average hearing (quadrant) and maximum speech discrimination. It is necessary to make the diagnosis in the state of symptom fixation, and attention should be paid to the method of calculating average hearing, using other auditory tests (such as the ABR test), and attaching the results. Meanwhile, the prosthetic device payment system has some basic rules for selecting the type of hearing aid and prosthetic ear, which must be complied with. It is necessary to constantly update information on the handling of special prosthetic devices and repair of speech processors of cochlear implants.

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A special issue for the main subjects The 66th congress of Japan Audiological Society
“Auditory rehabilitation for mild and moderate hearing loss” “Juvenile bilateral sensorineural hearing loss”
  • Mami Nakatsu, Eiko Hirota
    2022 Volume 65 Issue 2 Pages 113-121
    Published: April 28, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: May 24, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

     An anonymized self-administered web-based survey, along with an interview, was conducted of the following students enrolled at institutions of higher education: 7 students with mild-to-moderate hearing loss (MMHL), and comparator groups of 8 students with cochlear implants (CI) and 3 students with severe hearing loss. The survey was conducted using the short form of the Speech, Spatial and Qualities of Hearing scale suitable for clinical use (SSQ12), and the psychosocial difficulties of the subjects were evaluated. The results revealed that as compared with the CI group, the MMHL group felt more difficulties in hearing, especially “speech hearing” and “spatial hearing,” but less difficulties with the “qualities of hearing.” All the students had significant difficulty in “listening effort.” In regard to the psychosocial difficulties in the MMHL and CI students, the four quadrants according to the quantification theory type III analysis were interpreted as “Embarrassment about disclosing hearing loss,” “Decreased self-esteem,” “Inability to communicate,” and “Psychological defense.” Our survey revealed that the disclosure of hearing loss imposed a great psychological burden in the MMHL group (p<0.01). Therefore, we suggest that students with MMHL need to be advised and guided continuously from childhood.

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  • Shigehiro Oohara, Eiko Hirota, Tomomi Oohara
    2022 Volume 65 Issue 2 Pages 122-133
    Published: April 28, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: May 24, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

     Narrative organization in five children with moderate hearing loss (61.±5.3dBHL) was compared with that in five children with severe-to-profound hearing loss (97.2±15.6dBHL). The oral communication mode was adopted for both groups. We evaluated the macro-and micro-structures and analyzed related factors, including the age at intervention and maternal communication skills. The results indicated that the macro-structure usage rate in the group with moderate hearing loss was lower (29.2±3.9%) as compared with that in the group with severe-to-profound hearing loss (50±12.1%). In regard to micro-structure, although there was no difference in cohesiveness between the two groups, the group with moderate hearing loss showed lower vocabulary usage to construct narratives as compared with the other group (moderate hearing loss group: 18±4.9 words; severe-to-profound hearing loss group: 31±3 words). As factors related to narrative construction delay in children with moderate hearing loss, the study identified delay in intervention and inadequate maternal communication skills. The findings highlight the need to assess macro-and micro-structures and construct a communication support system with the collaboration of the parents, as necessary, to enable children with moderate hearing loss to develop narratives of children with moderate.

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  • Akira Nohara, Eiko Hirota, Atsuko Nakano, Yukiko Arimoto, Masumi ...
    2022 Volume 65 Issue 2 Pages 134-144
    Published: April 28, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: May 24, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

     A total of 12 children with mild-to-moderate hearing loss (MMHL) were examined before and after entering elementary school for (1) various aspects of language development and (2) their ability to infer others' emotions during conversations, and the results were compared with those of children with normal hearing (4-6 years old). The children showed a delay in the formal and pragmatic aspects of language development. In estimating the emotions of others, children with MMHL used self-compliant information at age 5 and other-compliant information at ages 6-7, showing developmental trends similar to those in normal children. The ability to infer emotions using information about others' behavioral tendencies was delayed at age 5, although a developmental trend similar to that of hearing children was observed from age 6. As for inferring others' emotions in through language instruction, it is thought to be effective to support children to refer to others' adaptive inferences based on multiple information input by incorporating scene situations and characteristics of others as relevant information.

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  • Hiroshi Nakanishi, Junya Kita, Shinya Nishio, Shin-ichi Usami, Ki ...
    2022 Volume 65 Issue 2 Pages 145-151
    Published: April 28, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: May 24, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

     We performed mutation analysis in a Japanese family segregating autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss. We identified a heterozygous missense mutation in the TECTA gene in a 40-year old male member and his 69-year old mother. The mutation was located in the zona pellucida domain in the encoded alpha-tectorin. Genotype-phenotype correlations of TECTA missense mutations have been established: missense mutations in the zona pellucida domain cause hearing loss with a saucer type of audiogram; if amino acid residues other than cysteine are affected, the hearing loss is stable. The 40-year-old man showed sensorineural hearing loss with a saucer type of audiogram, while his mother showed sensorineural hearing loss with a descending type of audiogram. Since her previous audiogram obtained when she was aged 52 years showed sensorineural hearing loss with a saucer type of audiogram, it was speculated that her hearing thresholds at high frequencies increased with age, resulting in the descending type of audiogram. In addition, the annual threshold deterioration at middle frequencies was 0.5dB/year in the mother, consistent with the established phenotype-genotype correlations. These results indicate that hearing thresholds at high frequencies may increase with age, especially in elderly subjects with TECTA mutations affecting amino acid residues other than cysteine.

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Original Articles
  • Masayo Kamei, Hiroaki Sato, Kiyoshi Yonemto, Youko Odashima
    2022 Volume 65 Issue 2 Pages 152-160
    Published: April 28, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: May 24, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

     Recently, many types of hearing aids with advanced built-in functions have been launched on the market. Among these, to facilitate hearing under noise, noise suppression functions, including variable directional microphone and binaural processing, are considered to be the most effective.

     We fixed three kinds of hearing aids to both ears of HATS (Head and Torso Simulator), and measured their directional characteristics, and determined the speech recognition score under the noise condition in 56 healthy volunteers with normal hearing.

     All the tested hearing aids without noise suppression functions showed almost the same directional pattern under white noise and speech sounds in the presence/absence of noise. On the other hand, those with noise suppression functions showed rather different patterns of speech sounds in the presence/absence of noise.

     We found that the noise suppression function worked best as in the presence of increasing SN ratio when speech sounds were presented frontally in a surrounding noise condition. When the noise suppression function was active, the monosyllable intelligibility and word recognition score improved significantly with the three tested hearing aids for those with normal hearing.

     The findings suggested that hearing aids' noise suppression algorithm discriminates speech sounds from noisy sounds, so that objective evaluation should be changed depending on would depend the environment under which the sounds are presented. We consider that for actual sound environments, testing under the surrounding noise condition is important for objective evaluation.

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  • Tomoko Esaki, Chisa Shibata, Wakako Kinoshita, Taku Hattori, Katsu ...
    2022 Volume 65 Issue 2 Pages 161-165
    Published: April 28, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: May 24, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

     Congenital cytomegalovirus infection (cCMV) is the second most common cause of childhood hearing loss, second only to hereditary factors, and may also affect neurological development. We examined the diagnostic process, degree of hearing course in 25 cases (10 boys and 15 girls) diagnosed as having cCMV at our hospital during the 12-year period from 2008 to 2020. “Symptomatic cCMV” was diagnosed in 17 cases, and cCMV was diagnosed and treated early in 10 cases (58.8%). Eight cases of asymptomatic cCMV showed retarded motor development and language delay, and the diagnosis of deafness was made only after 1 year of age. There are limitations to the judgment of cCMV from the symptoms immediately after birth, and it is desirable that cCMV screening be performed in all newborns.

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