In a relatively short period of time, transcatheter and endovascular approaches to treat thoracic aortic and structural heart disease have exploded onto the scene. New device frontiers already being forged in the experimental stages include expanded indications and variations of fenestrated and branch stentgrafting to treat thoracoabdominal and arch disease, endovascular ascending and aortic root repair, and all of the cardiac valves. A fundamental concept to optimize durability of endovascular repair is the need for fixation and seal in healthy tissue. Before long, the entire vascular and cardiovascular system will be within the reach of endovascular interventions. Ultimately, achieving success in this endeavor will require a combination of skill sets including familiarity with high definition imaging, surgical access, and the mastery of interventional techniques, as well as the development of better anatomy-specific and disease-specific devices.
Arteries and veins have been historically defined by the direction of blood flow and oxygen tension within the vessel, in addition to their functional, hemodynamic, and anatomical differences. It is now known that the molecular identity of these vessels is genetically predetermined, with specific molecular pathways acti-vated during the development of arteries and veins. Eph-B4 is a determinant of venous differentiation and Ephrin-B2 is a determinant of arterial differentiation. Placement of a vein into the higher pressure and flow of the arterial circulation results in adaptation of the vein to the arterial environment. There is selec-tive loss of Eph-B4 expression without induction of Ephrin-B2 expression during vein graft adaptation. These findings suggest that loss of venous identity is the crucial mechanism in vein graft adaptation and that developmentally critical determinants of vessel identity are plastic during adult life.
In this report, we review the anatomical features of the crural veins and the importance of the soleal vein and its drainage veins for thrombi formation and propagation. The result of our investigation of 120 legs of 60 autopsy cases with fatal pulmonary thromboembolism showed that the soleal vein was the most frequent site of deep vein thrombosis, both for fresh and for organized thrombi. Furthermore, the detection rate of thrombi, both fresh and organized, showed that the most common site was in the soleal vein and then decreased progressively according to the drainage route of the soleal vein. Anatomical characteristics and physiological mechanisms play a major role in the occurrence and propagation of venous thrombi. Thus, an understanding of these features is essential for effective prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism.
Purpose: We evaluated the operative results of our treatment for multiple aortic aneurysms by means of a hybrid procedure consisting of a combination of conventional surgical maneuvers and simultaneous or sequential endovascular aortic repair (EVAR). Materials and Methods: From August 1998 to April 2007, a total of 15 patients, 11 men and 4 women, ranging in age from 62 to 78 years, were treated with hybrid procedures for multiple aortic aneurysms. The pathology of these patients were, atherosclerotic aneurysm in 12 patients, atherosclerotic aneurysm associated with chronic dissection in 2 and type III chronic dissection in 1 patient. The distribution of aneurysmal locations were as follows: 5 patients had aneurysms at the arch and descending aorta, 1 had at the arch and thoracoabdominal aorta, 6 at the descending and abdominal aorta. Two patients with chronic dissection had simultaneous abdominal aortic aneurysms. In all except 1 of the 7 patients who had abdominal aortic aneurysm, we performed abdominal aneurysmectomy and EVAR simultaneously. In 7 patients, EVAR was performed sequentially after graft replacement surgery. In 2 patients, EVAR was the initial procedure followed by conventional surgery. The mean interval between first and second stage procedures was approximately 4 months. Results: One patients died of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia 3 months after the simultaneous procedure, all others were discharged and survive. In particular, no major EVAR linked complication was observed in the follow-up period (range 3 to 91 months, mean 46 months). Conclusion: The hybrid procedure for the treatment of multiple aortic aneurysmal disease is less invasive compared to conventional staged surgery and the outcome in terms of mortality and morbidity in hospital as well as long-term follow-up are satisfactory.
Phlegmasia cerulea dolens (PCD) is a rare but limb-threatening complication of deep vein thrombosis. We report a case of a 76-year-old man with recent splenic trauma and inferior vena cava (IVC) filter placement, who developed bilateral lower extremity PCD. Utilizing an endoluminal approach, the patient underwent mechanical thrombectomy and thrombolysis through bilateral infusion catheters placed antegrade from bothpopliteal veins. Clot lysis and return of palpable pedal pulses occurred within 24 hours. We demonstrate that the endoluminal management of this disease may be cautiously applied to the trauma patient, and that the judicious use of thrombolytic therapy can be beneficial even in the patient with a high potential for hemorrhage.
A previously healthy 36-year-old man admitted via emergency room with complaint of progressive chronic abdominal pain for 2 weeks. An enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a total occlusion of the superior mesenteric vein with thrombus and partial thrombosis of main portal vein. However, CT scan did not show any evidence of infectious or inflammatory foci in the abdominal cavity. He did not have any family history of coagulation disorder. He neither had any detectable coagulation disorder to induce thrombosis. The only possible risk factor for the superior venous thrombus is chronic inhalation exposure to stearic acid.
A case of asymptomatic right gastroepiploic artery and vein aneurysms with an arteriovenous (AV) fistula coexisting with an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is presented. A 68-year-old man was referred for treatment of AAA (6 cm in diameter) and he was incidentally diagnosed as having right gastroepiploic artery and venous aneurysms (3 cm and 8 cm in diameter, respectively) with an AV fistula. Resection of the aneurysms and closure of the fistula were successfully completed with AAA repair. He had a history of gastrectomy, and these gastroepiploic aneurysms with an AV fistula were considered a late complication due to mass ligation of vessels during gastrectomy.