Objective: In 2017, the Medical Accident Investigation and Support center in Japan released an analysis of acute pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) related mortality. This recommendation called for maintaining a “team in charge of PTE’s risk assessment, prevention, diagnosis and treatment” and preventing PTE through team activities. Therefore, we recommended establishing a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) prevention team. Before this recommendation, a multidisciplinary DVT prevention team was established in our hospital, with excellent outcomes. In the current study, we report the results of the DVT prevention team.
Methods: Our multidisciplinary team consisted of several departments: Cardiovascular Surgery, ward nurses, medical safety managers, and clerks. The following themes were launched: 1) preparation of DVT prevention protocol; 2) preparation of DVT preventive manual; 3) regular round for evaluating DVT preventive measures; 4) staff education. The protocol’s strong point was that nurses evaluated patients over 16-year-old with Wells’ score for DVT on admission. We retrospectively investigated the diagnosis rate of DVT and PTE for 9 months before and after protocol operation.
Results: The diagnosis rate of DVT was significantly improved after protocol implementation (before: 0.06% vs. after: 0.56%, p=0.0017). However, no significant difference was observed in the diagnosis rate of PTE before and after the protocol execution (before: 0.03% vs. after: 0.07%, p=0.98).
Conclusion: Our DVT prophylactic protocol improved the diagnostic rate of DVT resulting in a decrease of PTE in our hospital. (This is a translation of Jpn J Phlebol 2019; 30(3): 285–293.)
Patients with varicose veins of the lower extremities with osteoarthritis of the knee often experience improvement in knee joint symptoms after endovascular treatment. We considered that it was important to decide the operation indication of lower extremity varices, to know the correlation between the two diseases in the treatment of varicose veins. To investigate the postoperative improvement of knee symptoms related to varicose veins with knee osteoarthritis, we conducted a questionnaire survey for a total of 12 months, from December 2014 to May 2015 and from October 2018 to March 2019. The participants were 35 patients (7 men and 28 women) with varicose veins complicated with knee osteoarthritis. We classified knee osteoarthritis according to a grading scale and compared the improvement of knee symptoms after endovenous thermal ablation. The higher the knee grade, the lower the degree of improvement. However, the improvement was observed in all knee osteoarthritis grades, and as a whole, 25 patients (71.4%) have experienced improvement of subjective symptoms. For patients with knee osteoarthritis, we strongly recommend surgical treatment of the varicose veins regardless of the progression of knee grade. (This is a translation of Jpn J Phlebol 2019; 30(3): 279–283.)
Background: As a standard treatment for the varicose vein of the great saphenous vein (GSV) type, endovenous ablation (EVA) is the main approach. However, as a background to this, in Europe and the United States, neovascularization (Neo) following high ligation (HL) of the saphenofemoral junction (SFJ) at the time of GSV stripping has been emphasized as one of the reasons for the high rate of recurrence. However, in Japan, almost no similar mid- or long-term results of GSV stripping have been reported.
Patients and Methods: From September 2011 to March 2014 when EVA was not my surgical option, 413 consecutive legs of patients underwent GSV stripping by myself using the same procedure. The patients were contacted by phone 5 years later, and recurrent varices after surgery (REVAS) and reoperation (REDO) were investigated. A total of 270 legs of the 391 living cases (69%) underwent venous ultrasonography (VUS). HL of the SFJ was performed via central flash ligation with towing and pulling out of the peripheral side branches containing the accessory saphenous veins. In principle, GSV stripping was performed using the invagination method in the range of the entire reflux region from the HL cut section to the confluent section of the side branch causing branch varicose veins. The range of stripping was to the upper thigh in 3 legs, to the middle thigh in 3 legs, to the lower thigh in 7 legs, to the knee in 46 legs, to the upper calve in 83 legs, to the middle calve in 52 legs, and over the full length in 76 legs. Stab avulsion was performed as much as possible for the side-branch varices. On VUS, the SFJ’s stump of GSV, the presence of side-branch remnants and their reflux, the presence or absence of Neo, and the recurrent lesions in other sites were evaluated. REVAS were classified as follows: Level 1, symptomatic recurrent lesion for which surgery is indicated; Level 2, asymptomatic recurrent lesion possibly requiring future surgery; and Level 3, asymptomatic recurrent lesion that is unlikely to require future surgery.
Results: Of the 391 legs of patients who could be contacted, REDO was performed in 23 (6%), including 15 limbs, immediately after this investigation, and symptomatic REVAS were observed in 29 (7%). In 270 legs examined by VUS, REVAS were diagnosed as follows: 29 legs with Level 1 lesion, 40 legs with Level 2 lesion, and 27 legs with Level 3 lesion. Level 1 REVAS that occurred at the SFJ were observed only in 3 legs (1.1%), Level 1 REVAS due to incompetent perforating veins (IPVs) were observed in 14 legs (5%), and Level 1 solitary tributary varices were observed in 9 legs (3%).
Conclusion: In this study, REVAS at the SFJ were significantly less than those in the past reports. It has been shown that REVAS due to IPVs or solitary tributary varices were more important than those at the SFJ. (This is a translation of Jpn J Phlebol 2019; 30(3): 259–265.)
Objective: To measure the pattern and severity of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) in patients presenting to a vascular surgery clinic in Pakistan.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study has examined patients presenting with CVI for the first time. Patients were assessed for severity of the disease using clinical, etiological, anatomical and pathological (CEAP) score and venous clinical severity score (VCSS). Patients were then divided into two groups depending on the severity of the disease: ‘mild/moderate’ CVI if the CEAP classification was ≤C3 or VCSS was <5 and ‘severe’ if CEAP classification was >3 or VCSS was ≥5. Both groups were then compared to determine the factors associated with the more ‘severe’ form of CVI.
Results: During the study duration, 121 patients presented with CVI with mean age of 47.83±12.02 years; 74 (61.2%) were female. Mean body mass index of the patients was 32.49±18.3 kg/m2. Mean VCSS was 5.49±3.84, indicating most patients presented with the severe form of CVI. Field workers were determined to be three to five times more likely to present with severe CVI compared to housewives and office workers.
Conclusion: Majority of the patients who presented to a tertiary care facility had the severe form of CVI. Thus, there is a need to raise awareness on this disease at community level.
Objective: To investigate the optimal duration of compression therapy after endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) using a 1470-nm diode dual-ring radial laser fiber for great saphenous vein (GSV) insufficiency.
Methods: Patients undergoing EVLA of GSV for varicose vein disease were divided into two groups based on the duration of subsequent compression after the procedure: short duration group (S group; 0–2 days) and long duration group (L group; 1–4 weeks). Patient-reported outcomes (pain and quality of life [QOL]) were set as the primary outcomes, and objective findings (venous clinical severity score [VCSS], leg circumference, and duplex ultrasound [DUS] findings) were set as the secondary outcomes. A follow-up examination was performed at 1 week and 1 and 6 months. Each variable between the groups was compared after a propensity score matching using the age, sex, Clinical–Etiological–Anatomical–Pathophysiological (CEAP) clinical class, job type, and target variable as covariates. A per-protocol analysis was performed.
Results: The S and L groups included 98 and 99 patients, respectively. A propensity score matching analysis showed no significant differences between the groups in any outcomes at any follow-up intervals.
Conclusion: Long-term compression showed little benefit; therefore, the prescription of compression stocking beyond 2 days after EVLA is unnecessary.
Objectives: As per standard guidelines, the recommended order of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) creation for hemodialysis (HD) access is radiocephalic (RC), followed by proximal elbow fistulas and arteriovenous graft. Although ulnar-basilic (UB) fistula has been an alternative to RC-AVF, still this procedure searches clear recommendations. We present here our experience on UB-AVF as the preferred “second procedure” instead of proximal fistula after the RC-AVF.
Methods: Forty-two UB-AVF were created in nonfeasible and failed RC-AVF cases between 2016 and 2018. They were reviewed retrospectively and outcomes were compared with 480 RC-AVF constructed within the same period.
Results: The primary patency at 18 months was 73.8%, 69.6% and mean maturation time was 33.7±6.6 days, 32.1±4.7 days for UB-AVF and RC-AVF respectively (p>0.05).
Conclusion: Our altered order of preference enabled us to create all the first-time fistula in the distal forearm, providing all the advantages of distal fistula like RC-AVF and avoiding proximal fistula, improved patient convenience and short-term benefit. In an inference that may be used for references and needs support from a larger sample and longer duration study from other centers, UB-AVF may be considered as the second option after RC-AVF depending on the clinical scenario.
Objective: To describe the clinical utility and technical aspects of the candy-plug technique using an Excluder aortic extender (Ex-cuff) for false lumen (FL) occlusion in chronic aortic dissection.
Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study analyzing seven consecutive patients (mean age, 63 years; range, 44–78 years; 6 men) with aneurysmal dilatation or rupture in chronic aortic dissection. All patients had undergone thoracic endovascular aortic repair with FL occlusion using this technique. We assessed technical (deployment accuracy) and clinical (no FL backflow on the latest contrast-enhanced computed tomography) success.
Results: Technical success was obtained in six patients (86%). Technical failure was caused by the malposition of the candy-plug. The mean follow-up period was 593 days (range, 222–1225 days). Clinical success was obtained in four (57%), and incomplete Amplatzer Vascular Plug (AVP) embolization was seen in two. There was no enlarged FL after the procedure, and all patients are alive during the follow-up periods.
Conclusion: The candy-plug technique using an Ex-cuff may be a feasible option; however, it takes time to achieve complete AVP embolization. Therefore, using additional embolic materials should be considered when we use it for the rupture case. (This is a translation of Jpn J Endovasc Interv 2018; 19: 29–35.)
Objectives: To examine the outcomes of anticoagulant therapy for patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) with active cancer and the outcomes after cancer remission with and without anticoagulant therapy.
Materials and Methods: Of the 338 patients with cancer-associated VTE who received anticoagulant therapy, we evaluated therapeutic outcomes over 1 year for 112 patients whose cancers were in remission (cancer remission group) and 226 patients who continued cancer treatment (continued cancer treatment group). Further, the cancer remission group was divided into 89 and 23 patients who completed (completion of anticoagulation group) and continued (continued anticoagulation group) anticoagulant therapy, respectively. Treatment outcomes after completing anticoagulant therapy were compared between these two groups. The follow-up period was 1 year, and the endpoints were all-cause death, VTE recurrence, and bleeding events.
Results: The event-free survival rates were 99.1% and 42.9% in the cancer remission and continued cancer treatment groups, respectively. For treatment outcomes after the completion of anticoagulant therapy, the event-free survival rates were 98.9% and 87% in the completion of anticoagulation and continued anticoagulation groups, respectively (log rank, P=0.005).
Conclusion: When cancer is in remission, recurrence is low even if anticoagulant therapy is terminated after a certain period.
Objective: Zone 0 thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) is associated with a high incidence of cerebral infarction mostly due to the embolic shower of a plaque from the aortic arch when the stent graft brushes against the aortic wall. Thus, it is important to develop a method for protecting the brain from such embolism. We report the outcomes of Zone 0 TEVAR with a novel brain protection method using selective cerebral perfusion under extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO).
Materials and Methods: Two T-shaped grafts with ringed expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) were created using an 8-mm-ringed ePTFE anastomosed end-to-side with a 7-mm-ringed ePTFE. Carotid–carotid bypass and axillo-axillary bypass were established using these grafts. ECMO was connected to the grafts and the femoral vein. Bilateral carotid and axillary arteries were blocked, and cerebral perfusion was selectively maintained using ECMO. Total endovascular Zone 0 TEVAR was performed. The patency of brachiocephalic artery was maintained using the chimney or in situ fenestration technique.
Results: Since August 2016, seven patients with aortic arch aneurysms underwent the procedure. The mortality rate was 0%. No neurological complications developed.
Conclusion: This brain protection method using selective cerebral perfusion under ECMO is a safe method for Zone 0 TEVAR.
We report a case of combined types IIIb and Ia endoleak that developed 6 years after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) with the Endurant II® endograft for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The patient presented with post-EVAR AAA rupture and underwent emergency open repair. We observed types IIIb and Ia endoleak and successfully performed felt banding to preserve the stent graft. Type IIIb endoleak with the Endurant® endograft is rare, and treatments have not been fully established. We summarized the case reports regarding type IIIb endoleak with the Endurant® endograft and mainly discussed the treatments.
Vascular Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (vEDS) causes fatal vascular complications due to vascular fragility. However, invasive therapeutic procedures are generally avoided except in emergencies. We report a case of vEDS presenting with rapid expansion of a hepatic arterial aneurysm successfully treated using prophylactic endovascular therapy. A 43-year-old woman with vEDS confirmed by genetic testing was hospitalized for a symptomatic hepatic arterial aneurysm that expanded rapidly within a week. Prophylactic coil embolization was then successfully performed. Although the general applicability of this approach cannot be determined, prophylactic endovascular therapy can clearly be an option for arterial aneurysms at high risk of rupture.
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) is a rare disease known to cause vascular fragility. A case of a 59-year-old man with NF who had ruptures in three different arteries within a month is presented. The first rupture occurred in the right renal artery and was treated using a stent graft and embolization coils. The second and third ruptures occurred in an artery that had been compressed by a hematoma formed during the first bleed; both were embolized. In patients with NF-1, blood vessel fragility must be considered in treatment selection, especially when performing surgery or other invasive procedures near the great vessels.
The VIABAHN stent graft is often used for traumatic and iatrogenic vascular injuries. In this case, vascular injury at both edges of the VIABAHN stent graft was noted 4 months after endovascular repair for idiopathic superficial femoral artery (SFA) rupture. The longitudinal compression of the SFA with a decrease in hematoma size was assumed to exceed the flexibility of the stent graft. Thus, the use of stent grafts for vascular injuries with giant pseudoaneurysms may result in late vascular injuries at both edges of the stent graft. Therefore, cautious assessment of its indications and strict surveillance are required.
A 71-year-old man was referred to our hospital under a diagnosis of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The past history of the patient included a sigmoid colectomy at 64 years old for an ischemic colitis. The maximum diameter of AAA was still 45 mm, and the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) was aneurysmal and was 30 mm in diameter and thrombosed. The growth rate in the diameter of IMA aneurysm was 5 mm per year for the last 3 years. The patient successfully underwent endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), and the postoperative course was good. At 5 years after EVAR, computed tomography revealed a decrease in the diameter of both aneurysms.
A high-risk patient with aortic arch aneurysm, associated with severe calcification of the ascending aorta and iliac arteries, was treated with total debranching and antegrade thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) via the ascending aorta. Proximal anastomosis for a triple-branched graft to the ascending aorta was performed without side clamping using the “real chimney technique.” After bypassing the supra-aortic branches, a TEVAR was performed in an antegrade fashion through the ascending aorta. This case suggests that the approaches mentioned above should be considered in patients with arch aneurysms and severe calcified degeneration.
Carotid body tumors are defined as unusual tumors of neuroectodermal origin that occur in the carotid bifurcation. These generally benign masses grow slowly; then, they become symptomatic with enlargement. In this study, we present a case of a 66-year-old female patient diagnosed with a carotid body tumor with a diameter of 8×9×10 cm. The patient was surgically treated 2 days after embolization due to the wideness of the mass and surgical comorbidity. Furthermore, this article puts emphasis on the importance of embolization before curative surgery in carotid body tumors with large and high blood supply.
A 68-year-old man presented with a chief complaint of left leg pain; he was later diagnosed with an infected left internal iliac artery aneurysm. Multiple mononeuropathy was suspected. Since the aneurysm had a high risk of rupture, emergency Y-graft replacement was performed. Bacteroides vulgatus was then detected from the pus of the aneurysm. With continuous oral antimicrobial agents following intravenous antimicrobial agents, the patient was noted to have no recurrence. However, his leg pain symptoms continued postoperatively; thus, a supporting device was needed. It should be noted that even neurological symptoms may indicate the presence of aortoiliac aneurysms.
In this study, we report the case of a 47-year-old female who presented with extensive acute type IIIb aortic dissection and cerebral infarction. At 69 years of age, dilatation of the descending aorta was noted to be more than 70 mm with compression of the left atrium. We performed endovascular repair with distal false lumen occlusion. However, further dilatation of the descending aorta with false lumen flow from the re-entry of the common carotid artery was detected. She subsequently underwent additional proximal false lumen occlusion by embolization at the aortic arch. A year later, as per her computed tomography angiography findings, appreciable shrinkage of the descending aorta without endoleakage was observed.
An 85-year-old man visited our hospital with bilateral leg weakness. Blood tests revealed an abrupt deterioration of renal function. Computed tomography revealed a 53-mm aortic aneurysm at the level of the diaphragm with an aortic dissection after branching of the superior mesenteric artery. An emergency left axillary–left femoral artery bypass surgery was performed to secure blood flow to the kidneys and lower limbs. Five days later, a transcatheter balloon fenestration for the stenosis was performed, and the blood pressure of the infrarenal aorta was improved. Both the dorsal pedis and posterior tibial arteries became palpable, and renal function was improved.
Since 2013, the Japanese Society for Vascular Surgery has started the project of nationwide registration and tracking database for patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) who are treated by vascular surgeons. The purpose of this project is to clarify the current status of the medical practice for patients with CLI to contribute to the improvement of the quality of medical care. This database, called JAPAN CLI Database (JCLIMB), is created on the National Clinical Database and collects data of patients’ background, therapeutic measures, early results, and long-term prognosis as long as 5 years after the initial treatment. The limbs managed conservatively are also registered in the JCLIMB, together with those treated by surgery and/or endovascular treatment. In 2018, 1,145 CLI limbs (male 758 limbs, 66%) were registered by 90 facilities. Arteriosclerosis obliterans has accounted for 97% of the pathogenesis of these limbs. In this manuscript, the background data, ischemic status, treatment, and the early prognosis (within 1 month) of the registered limbs are reported. (This is a translation of Jpn J Vasc Surg 2020; 29: 365–393.)