Objective: This study aims to describe the angiographic imaging characteristics of superficial venous malformations and evaluate the treatment effectiveness of digital subtraction angiography (DSA)-guided foam sclerotherapy with polidocanol.
Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted in 18 patients with venous malformation treated by DSA-guided sclerotherapy. Treatment outcomes were evaluated based on pain improvement and reduction in lesion size on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 6-months posttreatment.
Results: A total 21 lesions and 46 sclerotherapy sessions were analyzed. MRI findings presented 8/21 lesions (38.1%) with excellent response, 9/21 (42.9%) with good response, and 3/21 (14.3%) with average response, while one patient (4.8%) showed no response. All patients experienced pain. A significant reduction (p<0.01) was observed in the pre- to posttreatment pain score (5.45 and 0.64, respectively). Over a follow-up period of 1–4 years, three out of four patients (75%) in the retrospective cohort experienced recurrence; one patient had an increased lesion size and pain score, while the other two patients only showed an increased lesion size. No severe complications were seen.
Conclusion: DSA-guided sclerotherapy with polidocanol is a safe and effective procedure for reducing lesion size and pain in symptomatic patients with superficial venous malformations.
Objective: This study aimed to examine the relationship between microalbuminuria and long-term life expectancy or limb events in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD).
Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study was performed in 714 patients with PAD. The primary outcomes were cardiovascular or cerebrovascular death (CCVD) and all-cause death (AD), and secondary outcomes were major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and cardiovascular and/or limb events (CVLE).
Results: The 5, 10, and 15 year survival rates were 82.4%, 53.1%, and 33.0%, respectively. The prevalence of patients with increased microalbuminuria was 39.2%. Higher microalbuminuria, age, C-reactive protein (CRP), lower serum albumin, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), ankle–brachial pressure index (ABI), diabetes, cerebral infarction, and coronary heart disease (CHD) were associated with CCVD; higher microalbuminuria, age, CRP, D-dimer, lower serum albumin, eGFR, and critical limb ischemia were related to AD; higher microalbuminuria, age, CRP, lower serum albumin, ABI, diabetes, and CHD were related to MACE; higher microalbuminuria, age, lower ABI, cerebral infarction, and CHD were related to CVLE in Cox multivariate analyses (p<0.05). Statins reduced CCVD, AD, MACE, and CVLE (p<0.001).
Conclusion: Higher microalbuminuria was a significant predictor for CCVD, AD, MACE, and CVLE in PAD patients.
Coral reef aorta (CRA) has been described as a rare disease characterized by the presence of dense calcifications of the aorta. In this study, we report on two patients with CRA caused by intermittent claudication (IC) who underwent endovascular VIABAHN VBX balloon-expandable stent-graft (VVBX) placement. Both patients underwent successful endovascular VVBX placement via transfemoral artery approach, and hemostasis was achieved via vascular closure device. Their symptoms were observed to disappear completely after treatment, and they were discharged without serious adverse events. No symptoms were noted at 1.5-year and 1-year follow-up.
An aberrant right subclavian artery usually arises from the aortic arch just distal to the left subclavian artery and crosses behind the esophagus on its way to the right axillary artery. Several reconstructive techniques of this artery in aortic surgery have been reported but mostly resulted in troublesome procedures. Here, we describe an alternative strategy presenting the occlusion of the aberrant right subclavian artery through the right pleural approach followed via extraanatomical axillary artery bypass. This surgical approach might be a simple and safe option for the aberrant right subclavian artery.
A 54-year-old Japanese man was diagnosed with blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS) due to venodilation in the lower extremities at birth and gastrointestinal vascular malformations. He also had small bowel bleeding and enhanced-fibrinolytic-type disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Endoscopic sclerotherapy for intestinal hemangioma could not be performed because of bleeding concerns; instead, a combined anticoagulant and antifibrinolytic treatment was performed. Although combination treatment with unfractionated heparin and tranexamic acid proved ineffective for small bowel bleeding, combination treatment with apixaban and tranexamic acid dramatically improved enhanced-fibrinolytic-type DIC. In BRBNS, treatment strategies should be considered after performing detailed coagulation tests.
We present a 62-year-old gentleman with rapidly forming abdominal pseudoaneurysms due to segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM). With rupture of his pseudoaneurysms, he underwent angiography and successful coil embolisation. In this case, we demonstrate the potential for rapid progression of pseudoaneurysms in SAM, with the need for prompt diagnosis and urgent endovascular intervention.
Bare stent infection is an extremely rare complication of endovascular treatment. In such cases, surgical resection of the infected bare stent and revascularization are recommended; however, the revascularization strategy remains controversial. We present a case of a 78-year-old man with an infected aneurysm caused by a bare iliac artery stent infection. We resected the infected aneurysm and performed in situ anatomic reconstruction using a rifampicin-soaked prosthesis with omental coverage. The patient had no reinfection at the 3-year follow-up. Therefore, this procedure may be a useful treatment for bare iliac artery stent infections.
A recent systematic review and meta-analysis shows that synchronous and metachronous thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms are present in 19.2% of cases. The management remains controversial: elective simultaneous TEVAR and EVAR could increase morbidity due to increased aortic coverage during a single procedure, longer operative times, increased blood loss, and greater contrast exposure. Conversely, simultaneous thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) and endovascular aneurysms repair (EVAR) prevent the need for two interventions, reduces future access site complications, and obviates interval aortic complications.
We present a case of a multilevel aortic disease treated in three stages: EVAR, TEVAR, and exclusion of an increasing aortic visceral penetrating aortic ulcer through a multilayer flow modulator endograft with an optimal result.
Lymphorrhea complications are common following femoral exposure for endovascular procedures. In patients unresponsive to either non-operative or operative therapy, treatment can be complicated. A 86-year-old male patient experienced lymphorrhea after stent graft to treat an abdominal aortic aneurysm, and five operative debridement attempts failed. Intranodal lymphangiography revealed leakage points from two lymph nodes directly into the wound, which were resolved by lymph node embolization using glue. Because the wound was large, a pedicled anterolateral thigh flap (ALT) operation was indicated. Percutaneous lymph node embolization combined with ALT operation may be effective for patients with large wounds and high-flow lymphatic leaks.
Hemorrhage due to a ruptured pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm is potentially fatal. We describe a case of a 51-year-old man, incidentally diagnosed with an inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm associated with probable congenital hypoplasia of the celiac axis and its branches. Considering the rupture risk, we performed an ilio-hepatic artery bypass with an autologous vein graft and aneurysmorrhaphy. The postoperative course was uneventful. At the 24-month follow-up, the bypass was patent, with no aneurysm recurrence. The ilio-hepatic artery bypass is effective and preserves visceral blood flow. However, the iliac artery is susceptible to occlusive disease, and long-term follow-up is required.
We report five cases of venous leg ulcers (VLU) that were resistant to conservative therapy for 22–119 months and were eventually healed via hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT). In one patient, VLU recurred four times and was managed using HBOT, each time. The VLU sizes ranged from 18 to 68 cm2 before HBOT. HBOT was administered at 2.0 atmospheres absolute with 100% oxygen for 60 min per session, five sessions a week during hospitalization. All VLUs healed after 17–66 sessions of HBOT.
Although the importance of the retrieval of an optional inferior vena cava filter (o-IVCF) has gained attention because of the awareness of a high complication rate with long indwelling time, the o-IVCF retrieval rate remains low. The advanced retrieval technique of o-IVCF may increase the retrieval rate, which in turn diminishes future adverse events. Through two cases, we describe how to perform the novel approach “bidirectional sling technique with biopsy forceps.” This technique will improve the retrieval rate in patients following the failure by conventional retrieval technique.
Objectives: This is an annual report indicating the number and early clinical results of annual vascular treatment performed by vascular surgeon in Japan in 2015, as analyzed by database management committee (DBC) members of the JSVS.
Materials and Methods: To survey the current status of vascular treatments performed by vascular surgeons in Japan, the DBC members of the JSVS analyzed the vascular treatment data provided by the National Clinical Database (NCD), including the number of treatments and early results such as operative and hospital mortality.
Results: In total 124,299 vascular treatments were registered by 1,038 institutions in 2015. This database is composed of 7 fields including treatment of aneurysms, chronic arterial occlusive disease, acute arterial occlusive disease, vascular injury, complication of previous vascular reconstruction, venous diseases, and other vascular treatments. The number of vascular treatments in each field was 22,041, 15,671, 4,779, 2,313, 857, 48,837, and 29,801, respectively. In the field of aneurysm treatment, 18,907 cases of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) including common iliac aneurysm were registered, and 57.6% were treated by endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Among AAA cases, 1,850 (9.8%) cases were registered as ruptured AAA. The operative mortality of ruptured and un-ruptured AAA was 16.0%, and 0.6%, respectively. 33.6% of ruptured AAA were treated by EVAR, and the EVAR ratio was gradually increasing, but the operative mortality of open repair and EVAR for ruptured AAA was 16.6%, and 14.5%, respectively. Regarding chronic arterial occlusive disease, open repair was performed in 8,230 cases, including 1,194 distal bypasses to the crural or pedal artery, whereas endovascular treatment (EVT) was performed in 7,441 cases. The EVT ratio was gradually increased at 47.4%. Venous treatment including 47,046 cases with varicose vein treatments and 531 cases with lower limb deep vein thrombosis were registered. Regarding other vascular operations, 29,801 cases of vascular access operations and 1,511 lower limb amputation surgeries were included.
Conclusions: The number of vascular treatments increased since 2011, and the proportion of endovascular procedures increased in almost all field of vascular diseases, especially EVAR for AAA, EVT for chronic arterial occlusive disease, and endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) for varicose veins. (This is a translation of Jpn J Vasc Surg 2020; 29: 161–179.)