This paper has mainly studied the actual condition of crane hunting during the Edo period by investigating various rules and specific hunting methods about crane hunting. The systems of crane hunting were not unified all around the country, and different hunting system worked in each domain. In some domain, commoners were also permitted to capture crane under certain rules, but the cranes captured belonged to the lord and all the cranes were eventually gathered to the lord in such systems. It is speculated that the crane hunting activities for the purpose of private use (livelihood or entertainment, etc.) that did not benefit the lord were banned during the Edo period instead of prohibiting hunting cranes all together. In addition, the methods for hunting cranes included gun hunting using a wooden decoy, hunting with nets or traps beside the well-known falconry.
There has been a decline in the number of hunters in Gifu Prefecture since the mid-1970s. Since the wildlife management department of Gifu prefectural government is currently making efforts to recruit more hunters, we felt that it would be helpful to understand the aspirations and attitudes of new hunters. We conducted a questionnaire survey among the people who applied for the hunting license examination between 2012 and 2014. There were 768 respondents in all for the three years. The main objective of the respondents in obtaining the license was to participate in nuisance control for reducing agricultural and/or ecosystem damages caused by the wild boar (Sus scrofa) and sika deer (Cervus nippon) by adopting box/leg-snare trap hunting. The results of the survey revealed that many respondents expected to learn hunting skills as early as possible and then participate in nuisance control; however, they preferred not to invest much money in hunting activities. Moreover, they mention that they will quit hunting when there are no more agricultural damages. Based on these findings, we suggest that an effective measure to support new hunters would be to provide them opportunities to acquire hunting skills through training. We also suggest that there is a need to modify the municipal regulations for wildlife management so that new hunters are enabled to participate in nuisance control.
To evaluate infection risk to wildlife managers, we conducted surveys on the incidence of spotted fever, eruptive fever, trombiculiasis, tularemia, and severe fever associated with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus. The target wildlife manager consisted of 24 hunters and 13 non-hunters. Our tests indicated that 6 of 37 wildlife managers had positive antibodies to spotted fever and 6 other managers had antibodies to trombiculiasis. One tularemia positive individual was confirmed in the hunter group. The antibody-positive to these tick borne diseases existed regardless of being a hunter or a non-hunter.
This study examined methodological problems associated with using direct observations to estimate home ranges of wild animals. It also provides preliminary documentation of the behavior and ecology of wild Assamese macaques in Bhutan. We collected group location data using a GPS-collared female and direct observations during April–August 2011. The GPS measured the group's locations every day at scheduled times, and the group was observed 11 days per month, on average. The group primarily used the riverbed and undulating slopes along the river during the daytime. The GPS measurements frequently failed at the midnight sampling time, possibly due to the group's use of steep cliffs as sleeping sites. The steep rock walls of the cliff likely prevented radio transmissions from GPS satellites. GPS indicated monthly home ranges of the group to be between 3.2 and 5.4 km2, close to estimates based on direct observations, except during May. Direct observations greatly underestimated the home range in May, when the range of the group changed dramatically. Observation days should be uniformly allocated throughout the month to avoid such underestimation and accurately estimate monthly home range, especially early in a study when no prior knowledge of the home range exists.