(1) In connection with the method for measuring the viscosity of a liquid, a microscopic method, quite different from the methods hitherto known has been proposed and its possibility has been examined. (2) The advantages of this microscopic method has been enumerated. (3) The apparatus and the procedure of the measurement has been described. (4) The theoretical relation of the influence of the fine particles added to the sample liquid on the viscosity of the liquid has been confirmed by experiment. (5) The viscosity of glycerine and acetone solution of cellulose acetate has been measured by this new method. (6) The results of measurements by the new method and those by the Ostwald viscosimeter have been compared, and the accuracy of the new method has been shown. (7) It is shown that the relation between the viscosity and the radius of the measuring capillary tube is in accord with the theory. The author desires to express here his feeling of obligation to Professor S. Horiba for his kind guidance throughout the investigation. The author also desires to express his gratitude to the Department of Education which supplied him with the necessary expenses for the investigation by granting him a Subsidy for Encouragement of the Study of Natural Science. The author is also indebted to Mr. T. Daimon who assisted him in the experiments.
The principal experimental results described above are summarized as follows: (1) Sotetsu-seed contains a glucoside of formaldehyde and this substance splits off formaldehyde by the action of sotetsu-emulsin. (2) The emulsin was easily prepared from sotetsu-seed and some of its properties were studied in the case of salicin as substrate. (3) The sotetsu-emulsin exhibited maximum activity in the solution of pB. near 5.0. (4) It was observed that the optimum temperature of sotetsuemulsin for salicin hydrolysis is 55–60°C. near the optimum hydrogen ion concentration. (5) In the reaction course of sotetsu-emulsin for salicin hydrolysis, the monomolecular reaction constant increased in course of time. (6) The reaction velocity of salicin hydrolysis is proportional to the amount of sotetsu-emulsin. (7) The salicin in 15 c.c. of 1% solution was completely hydrolysed by the action of sotetsu-emulsin in 5 c.c. of 0.8% solution, at the end of 8 hours in the digestion mixture of pH value 4.8 and temperature 37°C.
1.A concentrated fraction of docosahexenoic acid was converted into the amyl ester, and the latter was subjected to ozonolysis. Among the products of ozonolysis were found: acetaldehyde, acetic acid, carbon dioxide, succinic acid and amyl hydrogen succinate. The presence of the aldehydes corresponding to succinic acid and amyl hydrogen succinate was also indicated. Of these compounds, carbon dioxide together with acetaldehyde and acetic acid is attributable to the secondary decomposition of the products derived from the group =CH·CH2·CH=. The yield of carbon dioxide indicated the presence of at least three of the group =CH·CH2·CH= in amyl docosahexenoate. Consequently docosahexenoic acid has the following groups: =CH·CH2·CH=, =CH·(CH2)2·CH=, and =CH·(CH2)2·COOH, of which it has at least three of the group =CH·CH2·CH=. The yield of C4-compounds (succinic acid and the corresponding aldehyde) obtained by the ozonolysis gave an indication of the presence of more than one of the group =CH·(CH2)2·CH= in docosahexenoic acid. 2. Although the group attached to the CH3-side and the respective positions of the groups CH·CH2·CH= and =CH·(CH2)2·CH= were left undetermined in these experiments, the most probable structure of docosahexenoic acid was derived from the results obtained above.
A concentrated fraction of highly unsaturated acids was separated from sardine oil by means of sodium-soap-acetone method, and was distilled as its methyl esters up to 215°/2 mm. The residue from the distillation consisted mainly of the methyl esters of highly unsaturated C24-acids and some polymerised products. The free fatty acids liberated from the residue were separated into the fractions of different degrees of unsaturation by means of fractional precipitation of sodium soaps in acetone. The fraction of the highest degree of unsaturation consisted of nisinic acid C24H36O2. Examination of other fractions seemed to indicate the presence of some less unsaturated acids, such as C24H38O2 and C24H40O2, but no individual acids other than nisinic acid were separated.
Nisinic acid C24H36O2 has been separated from sardine oil, and its amyl ester subjected to ozonolysis. Among the products of ozonolysis were found: propyl aldehyde, propionic acid, asetaldehyde, acetic acid, carbon dioxide, succinic acid and amyl hydrogen succinate. Of these compounds propyl aldehyde and propionic acid are derived from the group CH3·CH2·CH=, whilst acetaldehyde and acetic acid together with carbon dioxide are attributable to the secondary decomposition of malonic acid and the corresponding aldehyde which are derived from the group =CH·CH2·CH=. The yield of carbon dioxide indicated the presence of more than two of the group =CH·CH2·CH=. Succinic acid and amyl hydrogen succinate are derived from the groups =CH·(CH2)2·CH= and =CH·(CH2)2·COOC5H11 respectively. Accordingly, nisinic acid was found to be composed of the following groups: CH3·CH2·CH=, CH·CH2·CH=(three), =CH·(CH2)2·CH= (two), and =CH·(CH2)2·CH= were not determined in these experiments. If, however, it is assumed that three of the ethylenic linkings in nisinac acid lie at 4:5-, 8:9- and 12:13-positions as is the case with previously studied moroctic, eicosatetraenoic and clutanodonic acids,the constipution of nisinic acid is expressed by the following formula: CH3·CH2·CH=CH·CH2·CH=CH·CH2·CH=CH·CH2·CH=CH·(CH2)2·CH=CH·(CH2)2·CH=CH·(CH2)2·COOH