(1) By the electrolytic oxidation of aniline oil in acid solution neither safranine nor fuchsine is produced. (2) p-Aminodiphenylamine is first produced, it passes into emeraldine and finally into aniline black. (3) p-Aminodiphenylamine reacts with aniline and homologues producing aposafranine.
(1) The induced reaction, which was formerly limited to oxidation reaction, has been extended to reactions in general, and many examples have been given. (2) All these induced reactions have been proved to be catalytic actions. (3) Evidences have been given to show that among catalytic actions, positive or negative, and promotor actions, there are many instances which can be described as induced reactions. (4) It has been shown that these induced reactions must always have two similar substances as inducer and acceptor.
(1) Electrodes consisting of a zinc oxide sample containing lead or cadmium, were prepared for the purpose of quantitative emission-spectrum analysis. (2) The reproducibility of the spectrograms of the electrodes was tested, and was shown to be within -4.8 to +6.5%, under the conditions of the experiment. (3) The sensitivity of this method for estimating lead and cadmium contained in zinc oxide was determined to be 1×10−6 and 1.5×10−6 respectively under the conditions of the experiment. (4) Influence of acids used for cementing zinc oxide, influence of the presence of carbonate and that of some metallic salts added to zinc oxide were tested. Some remarks on capacity and on the developing of the plate were described. (5) The values obtained by emission-spectrum analysis were compared with those found by chemical analysis or with theoretical values.
(1) Hydrogen ammonium carbonate prepared by saturating the solution of commercial ammonium carbonate with carbon dioxide may conveniently be used for quantitative precipitation of aluminium. (2) The precipitate formed with hydrogen ammonium carbonate at ordinary temperature is fairly stable in a solution having the pH value of 7.6, and its composition is represented by 4Al(OH)CO3·6Al(OH)3·9H2O. (3) The solubility of the basic carbonate in water is found to be 0.00242 g. per 1000 c.c. at 20–21°. (4) The analytical procedure for gravimetric determination of aluminium with hydrogen ammonium carbonate is given. (5) Several precautions which are to be taken in the analytical treatment of basic aluminium carbonate are fully described. In conclusion the author wishes to express his warm thanks to Prof. Motooki Matsui for his kind guidance and valuable suggestions.
(1) Lead is quantitatively precipitated as salicylaldoxime compound from a neutral and a strongly ammoniacal solution of pH (Remark: Graphics omitted.) 6.5. (2) The composition of the material precipitated and dried at about 105°C. is possibly Pb(C7H5O2N). (3) The solubility of lead salicylaldoxime in pure water at 25°C, measured by the use of radioactive isotope Th B as indicator, is 1.37×103 per liter, i.e., 4.0×106 mol/l.
The arrangements of the micro-crystals in electrolytic specimens deposited from acetic acid solutions, were examined with X-rays, by the so-called “transmission method”. From the diffraction patterns obtained, it was confirmed on the one hand, that the micro-crystals of lead have a tendency to be electrolytically deposited in a fibrous way, with one of the normals to their (211) faces arranged parallel to a definite common direction, as was the case in the experiments of Frölich, Clark, and Aborn. On the other hand, the direction of the growth of deposited lead, was found to coincide roughly with any one of the  axes, which make an angle 0°, 33° 34′, 48° 12′, and 80° 24′ respectively with the common axis of the micro-crystals.