(1) The lowerings of the congruent melting points of the alcoholates: LiCl·3CH3OH, LiCl·3CH3OH, LiCL·4C2H5OH, LiBr·4C2H5OH, and LiBr·4n-C3H7OH by the addition of foreign substances have been measured and the molecular depressions referred to 100 g. of each alcohol have been determined. (2) From these cryoscopic constants the heats of fusion of the alcoholates have been calculated. (3) When homologues of the solvent alcohol have been used as solutes, abnormally low values have been obtained for the cryoscopic constant. This discrepancy may be considered as due to the formation of a solid solution between the alcoholate and the solute alcohol and this fact has been semi-quantitatively verified.
(1) From the comparison of absorption curves given by nitroammine-cobaltic complex salts near 360 mμ of wave length, the following assumption was deduced: the absorption band presented by complex salt solutions can be resolved into the elements (characteristic absorption) which are due to the pairs of co-ordinated groups situated in transposition in a complex radical, and these elements show an additive property in the same complex ion. (2) By taking into account of the above-mentioned point of view, K[Co(NH3)2(NO2)4] (Erdemann’s salt) should have a trans-configuration. (3) This assumption may also be applied to the absorptions given by aquo-chloro-ammine salts of cobalt and chromium, in visible and ultraviolet regions.
(1) Viscosities of six following simple gases and seven binary gaseous mixtures have been measured by the transpiration method over the temperature range between 20° and 100 °C. &H_2,CH_4,C_2H_2,C_3H_6,C_3H_8,H_2∼CH_4,H_2∼C_2H_2, &H_2∼C_2H_6,H_2∼C_3H_6,CH_4∼C_2H_2,C_2H_2∼C_3H_6,C_3H_6∼C_3H_8. (2) The viscosities of the first four mixtures attain maximum values at definite compositions, which are about 20% of H2 for the mixture H2∼CH4 and about 70–80% of H2 for the other three. (3) Of several formulae proposed to express the viscosity of gaseous mixtures, that in which Kuenen’s consideration of the persistence of molecular velocity is introduced seems to be the most appropriate. The results of observation can be expressed satisfactorily by that formula, if we take a proper value for one of Sutherland’s constants which is due to the attraction between the different molecules and can not be determined directly. (4) The theoretical consideration of this Sutherland’s constant by Schmick and London have been examined by thirty-two examples. (5) The conditions for the occurrence of a maximum and a minimum points have been obtained from the discussion of the viscosity formula and these have been examined numerically for fifty-five mixtures, and found to be always correct except for only five cases. The viscosity-composition curve deviates in general from a straight line. The deviation depends on the ratios of molecular weights, molecular diameters, and Sutherland’s constants of two component gases. Especially the maximum point is very liable to occur if the ratio of two molecular weights is great. (6) It has been shown that, if the persistence of molecular velocity be neglected, the condition for the occurrence of a maximum point cannot be fulfilled and the consideration of the persistence is absolutely necessary to explain this point. (7) The composition of the maximum point displaces with the change of temperature. This is found to be due to the difference of Sutherland’s constants of two component gases. (8) The mean free path of each component gas has been calculated. Generally the smaller mean free paths increases in the presence of molecules with the greater mean free paths and vice versa, excepting a few cases.
(1) When some quantity of the solvent vapour is adsorbed by the solute crystal, a sort of solution is formed in the adsorbed layer. (2) Lumping of the powder, surface conductivity of the crystal, and the increase of the velocity of reactions between solids are explained as the result of the mobility of ions (or molecules) in this layer at the crystal surface.
(1) Dimethylmalonic acid and formic acid were obtained by the oxidation of shonanic acid. (2) A hydrocarbon C10H20 was obtained by the reduction of shonanic and tetrahydroshonanic acid with hydroiodic acid. (3) A hydrocarbon C9Hi16 (Remark: Graphics omitted.) was obtained by the dry distillation of shonanic acid with soda-lime. (4) The attempt to determine the ring structure of shonanic acid by comparing the properties of these hydrocarbons with those of known hydrocarbons gave no reliable results. (5) The formation of o-dinitrobenzene from shonanic acid by treating it with dilute nitric acid may be taken as an evidence for the presence of six-membered ring system in its molecule.