1. An accurate method of measuring circular dichroism has been proposed. 2. The general equation for the measurement has been worked out. (Remark: Graphics omitted.) 3. The range of applicability was discussed for the approximate equation, (Remark: Graphics omitted.) In order to make use of this equation with permissible errors less than 0.01, 0.1, and 1%, the following conditions should be complied with: |(εr−εl)cd|<0.04 for 0.01% , |(εr−εl)cd|<0.15 for 0.1% , and |(εr−εl)cd|<0.50 for 1% . 4. The light absorption, the rotatory dispersion, and the circular dichroism in the visible and the ultra-violet regions were measured for ammonium α-bromocamphor-π-sulphonate.
(1) The quantities of the following simple gases and gaseous mixtures flowing through the capillary at very low pressures have been measured. H2, C2H2, C3H6, H2∼C2H2, H2∼C3H6. (2) The rates of the molecular flow of simple gases are expressed satisfactorily by Knudsen’s formula. (3) The rates of the molecular flow of mixtures are considered to be additive of the components. This consideration has been confirmed by the measurements of the quantities of flow of mixtures. (4) The changes of the compositions of the mixtures after flowing through the capillary at low pressures have been measured and the results show also the validity of the additivity law.
(1) The quantities of seven following simple gases and six gaseous mixtures flowing through the capillary have been measured at the pressures between 4 and 0.01mm. &H_2,C_2H_2,C_3H_6,H_2∼C_3H_6; &C_6H_6,CCl_4,CHCl_3,(C_2H_5)_2O,C_6H_6∼CCl_4,CCl_4∼CHCl_3, &(C_2H_5)_2O∼CHCl_3. (2) The quantities of flow, K, is a function of the mean pressure, p, and the K−p curve passes through a minimum point. The occurrence of a minimum point of mixtures is more remarkable than in the case cf simple gases. (3) The quantities of flow of simple gases are satisfactorily expressed by K=ap+γb, where γ is a coefficient which becomes a constant at higher pressures (=0.9) or at very low pressures (=1.0), and varies from 0.9 to 1.0 at the intermediate conditions. (4) The quantities of flow of mixtures are also expressed by a formula analogous to that of simple gases. The values of γ′ at higher pressures of the mixtures are constant for varying compositions of the same combination of components, but different from those for different combinations and simple gases. These values are also considered to depend on the chemical configurations of two components. (5) The viscosities of the following mixtures have been calculated from the quantities of flow. C_6H_6CCl_4, CCl_4∼CHCl_3, (C_2H_5)_2O∼CHCl_3. The mixture CCl4∼CHCl3 shows a maximum at about 50% of CHCl3 and the viscosity curves of the other two are nearly straight.
(1) A formula for the flow of a gas through a porous plate has been derived and found that the observed quantity of flow is satisfactorilyexpressed by this formula. (2) The method of estimating the values of the mean radius and the number of pores of a porous plate has been proposed.