(1) When one surface of the membrane of a glass electrode is dried, the asymmetry potential is raised on that side against the other side, and the hydrogen electrode function is decreased. This membrane being kept submerged in water, the reverse effect is observed. These facts can be explained qualitatively by any of the latest theories concerning the glass electrode. (2) The significance of preserving the glass electrode in water after its preparation, which is a generally accepted procedure in the use of the glass electrode, can be stated as follows: (i) It makes the hydrogen electrode function approach Nernst’s theoretical value, probably decreasing the cation effect on the potential of the glass electrode, (ii) it decreases the asymmetry potential, equalizing the electromotive nature of both the inner and outer surfaces of the electrode membrane, and (iii) it facilitates the equilibration of the potential after the electrode is mounted in a solution for test.
(1) Further experimental investigations were made on the charge and discharge characteristics of the silver electrode of the cell which was constructed from the silver positive and the iron negative in KOH solution. (2) Silver oxide positive gives very high value of the coefficient of utility of the active material. (3) Discharge capacity and the utility coefficient are not seriously affected by the strength of the discharge current. (4) The oxygen fixed in the active material in the charged state is consumed completely in the succeeding discharge. (5) The amount of electricity charged is affected seriously by the strength of the charging current. (6) These phenomena can well be explained by the following chemical reactions. (Remark: Graphics omitted.)
It has been demonstrated that the isomerisation of maleic acid into fumaric acid in aqueous solution is accerelated by the presence of molecular oxygen, platinum black, palladium black, and various paramagnetic ions, where the isomerisation being probably effectuated by the non-homogeneous magnetic fields of the catalysts in the collision. The isomerisation of maleic acid to fumaric acid in aqueous solution has been kinetically studied both in the presence of paramagnetic oxygen molecules and in the presence of diamagnetic nitrogen molecules, and the energy of activation of the reaction has been calculated. The lower energy of activation in the reaction with oxygen accounts for the catalytic action of the oxygen molecules.