Adsorption isotherms of water and acetonitrile for Japanese acid earth have been studied by using a McBain’s sorption balance. A marked hysteresis phenomenon has been observed in both cases. It has been found that as the process of adsorption and desorption is repeated, the lower region of the hysteresis area tends to be reversible in the case of water, while in the case of acetonitrile hysteresis covers the whole range of the isotherms even after the fourth series of adsorption and desorption. In both cases the upper region of the hysteresis area remains unchanged. The first type of the hysteresis, which tends to disappear, has been explained as due to the existence of the adsorbed foreign substances on the surface of the earth, while the second type is associated with capillary condensation process. The difference between the behaviours of water and acetonitrile can be attributed to the difference of affinity of the two substances to the earth. The total volume of pores of the earth has been calculated from the adsorbed amounts of the two substances and found about 40 c.c. for 100 g. earth.
(1) The electric conductivity of such pulverized metals as Pt, Au, Ni, Co, Cu, and Ag has been measured in the atmosphere of hydrogen. (2) The effect of hydrogen on the conductivity is characteristic for each metal, and can be classified in three types: a) The conductivity increases as the hydrogen pressure rises:—Pt. b) The conductivity decreases as the hydrogen pressure rises:— Ni, Co, Cu, and Ag. c) No effect:—Au. (3) In the case of nickel, more detailed observations were carried out as regards the oxidation and the reduction velocities, the relation between the conductivity and the temperature, the relation between the current and the voltage both in the cases of oxidized and reduced nickel, and finally the relation between the conductivity and the hydrogen pressure. (4) A relation between the conductivity and the hydrogen pressure is expressed from 0.1 mm. Hg up to 100 mm. Hg by the following ex？ression: σ∝P^-1/n, and above 100 mm. Hg a saturation in conductivity is attained.
Styrene ozonide has been prepared by introducing purified ozonized air into styrene dissolved in carbon tetrachloride, in benzene, in chloro？orm, and in ethyl ether. The ozonide thus prepared does not oxidise styrene but promotes its polymerization. The increase of the ozonide concentration in styrene shortens the activation period but not the polymerization period. Temperature effect upon this polymerization is also seen to be exerted only upon the activation stage. Among the decomposition products of styrene ozonide, benzaldehyde and polystyrene slightly accelerate the styrene polymerization but benzoic acid, formic acid and formaldehyde are inactive in this respect. The ozonides prepared in the four different solvents have been examined for their molecular weight by the measurements of freezing point and of viscosity. It has been found that they are not the simple ozonide but its polymers; those prepared in carbon tetrachloride and in benzene consist of hexamer and tetramer, that prepared in chloroform tetramer and dimer, and that prepared in ethyl ether only dimer. Thus, the solvent of higher dipole moment gives the lower polymer. Both chemical and physical properties of the ozonide differ according to the stage of polymerization, higher polymer is less active for styrene polymerization and for permanganate reduction, the lower the stage of polymerization its chemical activity is more closely related to peroxide monomer. Higher polymer has higher viscosity than the lower.