(1) 4-Nitrobiphenylene oxide was isolated in a pure state from the nitration products of biphenylene oxide and the amido, acetamido, dinitro, trinitro, tetranitro and bromonitro derivatives were prepared from it. The constitutions of the latter four derivatives were established. (2) The physical properties, especially the absorption spectra, of those newly obtained compounds and the corresponding compounds derived from 1-, 2- and 3-nitrobiphenylene oxides were comparatively studied.
A method for the polarographic estimation of copper is described. The copper content of the hot springs of Yunohanazawa, Hakone, Kanagawa prefecture, and that of Osoreyama, Aomori prefecture, are polarographically estimated.
(1) As inorganic reagent besides sulphur and selenium, 16 kinds of elements, 28 of halides, 18 of nitrates, 23 of sulphates, 17 of oxides and 29 of other miscellaneous substances were used. Many of the halides have strong gelation accelerating actions and magnesium compounds have strong gelation retarding actions. Metallic sodium acts gelation accelerating and manganese, compounds which are used as oxidation catalysers in paint industry, act as gelation retarding catalysers. Generally speaking acidic substances have gelation accelerating and basic substances have gelation retarding action. (2) Gelation retarding power of S and Se are very strong and the gelation time of tung oil becomes infinitely long when added with 0.05% of regents. At the same concentration the gelation retarding action of Se is stronger than that of S. (3) The relation between the logarithm of gelation time and the amount of S added is linear. These results can be applied also to the systems of mixture of tung oil and soya bean oil. (4) S, Se and I2 have isomerisation action upon tung oil at room temperature when irradiated by ultraviolet light. (5) The gelation time of tung oil increases with the lapse of time from addition of S, so there is an intimate connection between the isomerisation and the gelation retarding action.
(1) Studies on the effects of straight asphalts, blown asphalts, gilsonite, petroleum pitch, stearin pitch, mineral rubber, coaltar pitch, etc. on the gelation time of tung oil lead to the conclusions that the gelation is promoted with bitumen added in an amount less than 10–15 percent., but is prevented with an addition of larger amount of bitumen. The inversion was noticed as the amount of substances added increase. (2) Petroleum asphalt with a lower softening point has a somewhat greater gelation preventing effect. (3) 15° blown as？halt was separated into alcohol soluble and insolu？le parts. As in the case of the original asphalt, the inversion was found in the experiments with the soluble and insoluble parts. (4) 5° blown asphalt was separated into asphalten and petrolen, and effects on gelation were studied. As in the case of ordinary neutral substances, the linear relation of 1⁄t and x was observed in the experiments with petrolen, but as in the case with original asphalt, the inversion was noticed when asphalten was used. (5) The gelation-retarding effects of various natural and synthetic resins were observed. Among them copal, dammar, amber, coumarone resin have retarding effects, and 1⁄t and x bear a linear relation. The relation 1⁄t and x for mastic, leuchtol, phthalate resin, ester rosin, sandarac, tamanol are not linear. Generally speaking, the relations of 1⁄t and x for neutral and soluble resins are linear, but those of the less soluble resins are not linear. About the effect of rosin upon gelation of tung oil, many measurements were carried out and the relation of 1⁄t and x are shown to be expressed by a quadratic equation. The influence of temperature on the gelation times of tung oil mixed with rosin is similar to that of fatty acid.
(1) From the experimental study of the nitrogenation of calcium carbide the author concluded its mechanism to be as follows: (a) adsorptions of nitrogen on the carbide, (b) formation of intermediate compound Ca(CN)2 temporarily, (c) breaking of Ca(CN)2 into CaCN2 and C. (2) Equations for this (gas-solid) reaction velocity were derived from above view. For constant temperature and pressure (Remark: Graphics omitted.) and for changing pressure (Remark: Graphics omitted.) (3) The coincidence of these equations with the experimental results were discussed. (4) The heat of activation for the reaction of the adsorbed nitrogen and carbide to form calcium cyanide was calculated to be approximately 86 Cal./mol.