(1) Hypotheses suggested to explain the orientation of hydrogen bromide in the addition to the ethenoid compound have been briefly reviewed and critisized. (2) Allowing the mixture of hydrogen bromide and oxygen to react with crotonic acid in carbon tetrachloride, three products, β-bromobutyric acid, crotonic acid dibromide and α-hydroxy-β-bromobutyric acid, have been isolated. (3) Oxygen has been found not to accelerate the addition of hydrogen bromide to crotonic acid in carbon tetrachloride solution in the dark. (4) It is concluded that in the addition of hydrogen bromide to crotonic acid in the presence of oxygen, this participates in the reaction producing free bromo-radical acid and bromine atoms, the latter being attached to the β-carbon atom of crotonic acid, but that the chains involving these cannot develop because of the ready reaction of the bromo radical acid with oxygen rather than with hydrogen bromide.
(1) The effects on the Co type catalyst of such promoters as B2O3 and Cu, and the combined effects of ThO2 and CeO2 on the catalytic activity have been investigated and discussed. (2) The effects of the pre-treatment on the catalytic activity have been investigated and discussed. (3) It has been shown that there is a fundamental difficulty to generalize a parallel relationship between the gas contraction and the oil yields. (4) In discussing the catalytic activity, that the CH4 formation must be carefully segregated whenever we speak of the catalytic activity as to its oil forming ability has been pointed out as of paramount im？ortance.
It has been shown that when acetylene is used as a carrier gas, the percentage of the total liquid products, based on the reacted carbide acetylene (or carbon), increases owing to the polymerization of the carrier gas itself, provided its concentration is sufficiently high. If the concentration is low, the effect of the introduced acetylene appears limited merely to the suppression of the formation of free acetylene. An explanation for a higher content than in the reacted gas of methane in the effluent gas used for desorption has been given for the acetylene system. The supplementary data in support and evidence for the reasonableness of the over-all mechanism of nascent acetylene polymerization, which may be written n(C_2H_2)=(C_2H_2)_n, have been given. It has been indicated that the efficacy of the synthesis of hydrocarbon liquids directly from calcium carbide is higher than even the catalytic polymerization, so far reported in literature, of ordinary acetylene.