The determinations of nickel, cobalt and the major constituents in Tentoku Mineral Spring, Saga Prefecture, typical of the acid vitriol springs in Japan, have bee made. The result is that this spring contains such a remarkable amount both of nickel and cobalt that it proves to be the richest in our country in either element, showing 9.38 mg. Ni/l. and 2.19 mg. Co/l. The distributions of these two elements between the filtrate and the precipitate have been investigated. Either of these mostly remains in the filtrate and partly migrates to the precipitate. In this regard a difference between nickel and cobalt, if it could be found, seems to be a matter of degree, that is, a problem as to which element has closer affinity to the precipitate of ferric hydroxide.
(1) The results of the distillation analysis of the products have been graphically presented in the volume percent against each constituent and correlated. (2) The physico-chemical properties such as refractive index, specific gravity, apparent molecular weight and the elementary analysis of the products along with experimental conditions and the catalyst used have been tabulated. (3) As regards the effects of the catalyst composition on the nature and the composition of the products, we may posibly state that there is practically no definite conclusion, however, a slight variation may be found, as far as these series of data and the catalyst are concerned.
(1) In order to grasp the general trend of isomerization reactions of saturated hydrocarbons, the free energy equations, as a function of temperature convenient for practical calculations, are derived based on one of the more recent data available. (2) Making use of these derived simple free energy equations, ΔF’s at 0°, 25°, 100°, 200° and 300°C. are computed and tabulated and compared with those of other sources. (3) The free energy equations of some of the useful reactions such as the formation of neohexane by alkylation, and the formation of isooctane by the coupling reaction of isobutene and isobutane are derived and ΔF’s are calculated. (4) Discussions in connection with these thermodynamical calculations for iso？erization reactions are presented. (5) Discussions of the isomerization in connection with so-called “Bond Free Energy Equation” of Bruins and Czarnecki are presented. (6) In general, isomerization reactions of hydrocarbons, with few exceptions, are favoured thermodynamically at a lower temperature. (7) Isomerization reactions from simpler structures to more complicated and branched compounds are favoured thermodynamically, more or less, at a lower tem？erature. (8) In the isomerization reactions of di- or tri-methylated compounds involving merely an exchange of the position of the carbon to which methyl or ethyl groups are attached, a structure which is more non-symmetrical favours the isomerization thermo？ynamically at a higher temperature. (9) Free energy changes involved in the isomerization reactions are of small magnitude as compared with those of ordinary chemical reactions. (10) The errors involved in the data of the free energy changes of isomerization often amount to a magnitude as big as the free energy change itself. Hence in the selection of data for such calculations, much caution should be taken into consideration.