The reflection and transmission coefficient of electromagnetic waves by multiple layer has been obtained theoretically. A convenient method has been deviced to determine dielectric constant and loss factor of a material in a form of a sheet placed on a metal, from the reflection eoefficeint. A convenient method has also, been developed to determine the dielectric constant and loss factor from experimental curve of transmission coefficient versus thickness of dielectric sheet concerned.
The reflection coefficient of water layer placed on mercury has been measured at a wave length 9.8 cm. and at 5.5°C. From the curve of reflection coefficient vs. thickness of the water layer, dielectric constant and loss factor (or refractive index and absorption coefficient) have been calculated according to the procedure described previously. Water has shown anomalous dispersion and absorption at this wave length. The dielectric constant and loss factor have been measured for ebonite, bakelite and methacryl resin at the same wave length, by the transmission method.
The mechanisms of agglomeration of erythrocytes caused by hydrophilic negative polymers were investigated and the following views were proposed. (1) Among the negative colloids, fibrous colloids show the erythrocyte agglomeration, while spherical ones do not cause it. (2) Agglomeration by the negative colloids is caused by two actions, i. e., adsorption of these polymers upon cells and their action to join cells together. Those substances which lack either or both of these actions fail to cause the agglomeration. (3) Fibrous structure of macromolecule favors these actions on account of the large extension of molecule and adequate flexibility of each part of the molecule in solution. (4) The dissociated or dipol radicals of the negative polymers and amino groups of the protein of cell surface are considered to be the centres of adsorption respectively.
By running a gas mixture of aromatic and hydroaromatic hydrocarbons and air an ozonizer, following reactions were found to occur mainly. (a) C6H6 C6H6+O→C6H5OH (b) C6H5CH3 (Remark: Graphics omitted.) (c) C6H12 (Remark: Graphics omitted.) (2) Conversion efficiency at one run under suitable conditions was found to be (a) 0.86-3.8 % (effective length of ozonizer, 22 cm.), (b) 3.5-8.6 % (effective length of ozonizer, 25-75 cm.), and (c) 18-43% (effective length of ozonizer, 75 cm.), respectively. The yield of each compound produced (grams of each compound produced/grams of total reaction product×100) was as follows: (a), phenol 25-30 %; (b), benzylalcohol 26-30%, benzaldehyde 13-20%, benzoic acid 2-4%, o-cresol 25-28%; and (c), cyclohexanol 44-63%, cyclohexanone 18-25%. (3) In the case of the oxidation of benzene, the yield of phenol could be increased to above 60% of the total reaction product by the special method. (4) Aniline and other basic compounds were obtained by the reaction of benzene and ammonia in an ozonizer.
The dipole moments of halogen-derivatives of hinokitiol (4-isopropylcyc]oheptatriene-2,4, 6-ol-2-one-1) were measured in benzene solution at 25°. The values obtained are: β-monobromohinokitiol (3-bromo-), 4.40 D; α-monochlorohinokitiol (5-chloro-), 2.70 D; β-monochlorohinokitiol (7-chloro-), 4.38 D; γ-monochlorohinokitiol (3-chloro-), 4.74 D; α-dichlorohinokitiol (3,7-dichloro-), 4.46 D. By analysing the results obtained, the position of substituents in the halogenated hinokitiols were determined and are given immediately after each name of these compounds in parentheses.
(1) Upon taking the hydration into consideration the thermodynamical properties of solutions of electrolytes and non-electrolytes can be well represented over the wide range of concentration. (2) The values of hydration number of non-electrolytes seem to be related to the configuration of solute molecules. The hydration number was determined for 37 solutes.
1. The fungal amylase preparation containing rich proteolytic but poor diastatic enzyme has been prepared by precipitating Koji water extract with the amount of alcohol which gives around fifty to sixty volume percent solution. 2. A strong fungal amylase but very weak proteolytic enzyme preparation has been prepared by fractional precipitation of the filtrate of 1 by adding further alcohol up to seventy percent or over. 3. The possibility of utilizing fungal diastase preparation in the bread making industry has been pointed out.
In the amperometric titration of potassium with dipicrylaminate, the end-point located by the theory of Langer etal. showed satisfactory results. The accuracy was within 1 mg. with more than 30 mg. K. In presence of 350 mg. Na, or aluminate and precipitate of ferric hydroxide the titration was not affected.