In the hydrochloric or sulfuric acid-catalyzed condensation of aniline with formaldehyde, it was found that the addition of inorganic salt, e. g., sodium chloride or potassium sulfate, increases the rate and this fact is ascribed to the so-called primary and secondary salt effects.
Simple viscous liquids become thread-forming first at the viscosity of 40∼50 poises or more. Spinnability of typical thread-forming liquids is characterized by the co-operation of the far smaller viscosity and some “elasticity.”
According to the experiments and considerations presented above, a mechanical model as Fig. 4 is introduced for the thread-forming state of liquid. The thread-forming state is the “series” coupling of elasticity corresponding to G=10°∼102 dyn./cm.2 (some millionth of G for rubber) and viscosity which corresponds to η=10°101 poises (some thousands times η for water). This is spinnability.
A new type of polarographic apparatus which utilizes the amplifying method and recorder is described. And its faculty is studied by comparing it with usual photographic apparatus. At the same time, p-nitrosodiethylaniline is studied polarographically and the comparison of both apparatuses is achieved through that study.
The surface aging of the solutions of some ω,ω′-dicarboxylic acids was investigated by measuring the surface tension and surface potential, in a function of time. Only the slow adsorption process was studied in the present experiment. Adipic, suberic, and azelaic acid reached readily an equilibrium. Sebacic acid showed considerable surface aging. The mechanism of adsorption was assumed in the light of kinetic molecular theory, and the free energy of activation for adsorption was calculated. We obtained the free activation energy, 17.5-17.9 Kcal. for suberic acid, 18.0-18.5 Kcal. for azelaic acid and 13.8 Kcal. or more than this for sebacic acid. Free energy of activation for adsorption was increased to some extent with the surface concentration of already adsorbed solute molecules and consequently, for a certain solution, with the surface age.
1. The molecular weight of the surface denatured hemoglobin is calculated from the FA-F curve, to be about 35,000, which shows that the hemoglobin molecule splits into two pieces by surface denaturation at pH=6. 2. From the compressibility data, and surface denatured hemglobin molecule is considered to cover about 3065 Å.2 of area. 3. The ratio of two axes is obtained by the surface diffusion experiment to be 1.12. 4. The thickness of the molecule is determined to be 19 Å. by the optical method, and the surface-denatured hemoglobin molecule is considered to be a perfectly circular disk, the radius of which is about 30 Å. and the thickness about 19 Å.
The dichroisms of 1,6-[Co(en)2Cl2]Cl·HCl·2H2O and of 1,6-[Co(en)2Cl2]NO3 have been measured by the microscopic method. From consideration of the results, it has been presumed that, in the crystal of the hydrochloride, the line connecting Co with two Cl atoms is almost parallel to the b -axis, that the plane containing one Co and four N atoms of two ethylene-diamine molecules around Co is almost parallel to the plane formed by the a- and the c-axis. The nature of absorption bands of metallic complexes has been discussed on the basis of dichroism for the single praseo-ion, which has been determined from the above assumption. Arrangement of the complex ions in the nitrate has been inferred from observations as to the nature of dichroism in several faces. From comparison of the crystal structures of the two compounds and consideration of other properties, it has been suggested that the HCl molecule of crystallization in the crystal of the hydrochloride plays an important part in holding the complex ions together so that all the complex ions take the same orientation.