The present author carried out the determination of nutrient salts of the water samples collected from the equatorial region of the North Pacific in 1951, and their distributions have been investigated taking the biological factor into consideration. The author found that the distributions, of nutrient salts were closely connected with the structure of the movements of sea water in this region and that the effect of water movements was extended to a depth of 500 m. On the other hand, it is suggested that the oxygen minima and nutrient salts maxima developed just below the divergence are caused by the biological factor. The estimations of biological rate of change of the constituents in the layer in which the decomposition processes might occur were made, introducing some simplifying assumptions. As the results, the values of 3∼8×10−8 μ-atoms PO4-P/1; sec. for phosphate liberation and 3∼12.5×10−8 ml. O2/1. sec. for oxygen consumption were obtained. These values are probably reliable as the measure indicating the rate of decomposition processes which take place in the subsurface layer within the region in question.
(1) Dichroisms of K2PdI4, K2Pd(SCN)4 and K2Pt(SCN)4 have been quantitatively determined by the microscopic method, and it has been found that all of them belong to the group which exhibits the dichroism of the “tetrahalogeno-complex type.” (2) For the tetrahalogeno-complexes, the following rules have been found : νCl>νBr>νI and kCl<KBRkI for the corresponding absorption band, and the oscillator strength of the second band is larger for || -absorption than for ⊥-absorption. (3) For tetrahalogeno- and tetrathio-cyanato-complexes of platinum (II) and palladium (II), common regularities have been induced on the dichroisms of the tetrahalogeno-complex type.
(1) Vinyl chloride and organohalosilanes were shown to react with finely divided metallic sodium in ethyl ether, and trimethyl-, dimethyldi-, triethyl- and dimethylphenyl- vinylsilanes were prepared. Of these, dimethyldi- and dimethylphenyl-vinylsilane are new compounds and their physical constants were given. (2) Infrared spectra of these four organovinylsilanes were obtained and certain characteristic absorption bands were discussed. (3) Trichlorosilane was found to add to these vinylsilanes at the presence of diacetyl peroxide and four new β-trichlorosilylethyl-silanes were prepared and characterized.
Sterol mixture of the chitons caught around Osaki-Shimojima Island in the Inland Sea of Seto contains predominantly Δ7-cholestenol, the acetate of which is easily obtainable in a pure state by several recrystallizations of the acetate of sterol mixture. From sterolfree components of unsaponifiable matter, a saturated fraction, possibly consisting of chimyl and batyl alcohols, was separated.
A static method of measuring the viscoelasticity of spread monolayers is presented, and the rheological study was carried out with the monolayers of ovalbumin, horse serum albumin, and hemoglobin. The deformation-time relations, obtained under the shear stress, were found to give very detailed information about the structure of films. With ovalbumin films spread on 0.1 N hydrochloric acid, it was found that an instantaneous elasticity, accompanying retarded elasticity, appeared in an unexpectedly large area, i.e., in the area above 5 sq. m. per mg. Surface shear modulus of instantaneous elasticity increased linearly with the decrease of surface area, exhibiting several breaks in the slope. The films of serum albumin and hemoglobin behaved differently from ovalbumin film, as they did not exhibit any viscoelasticity until they were compressed to a considerably small area. Compression down to the area below 1.0 sq. m. per mg., however, makes a simple viscous film and further compression down to the area below 0.8 sq. m. per mg., just rendered the film viscoelastic. Such changes of film state were found to be consistent with the breaks in the compressibility-area curve obtained from the forcearea curve. Discussions of the characterization of these protein films were briefly made in terms of molecules.
The absolute reaction rates of carbon dioxide with eight carbons have been obtained from the surface area measurement by the B.E.T. method using ammonia adsorption at 0°C and the reaction rate measurement. The activation energies ranged from 91 Kcal/mol of oil coke and coke III to 99 Kcal/mol of coke I and pitch coke. The reaction mechanism that the reaction of the formation of surface oxide is rapid and always in equilibrium and the concentration of the surface oxide is negligibly small compared with total active centers and the rate-determining step is the desorption of surface oxide can be interpreted by the theory of absolute reaction rates. It may be concluded that the difference of the activation energies will be due to catalytic effects of some impurities in carbons, and that the difference of the absolute reaction rates due only to the difference of the crystallographic structure of pure carbons without the catalytic effects of impurities will be small.
1. Cyclohexanedionedioxime (nioxime) was synthesized and its aqueous solution was used for the amperometric titration of nickel in ammoniacal medium, and the accurate results were obtained. 2. The polarographic behavior of nioxime was investigated and the reduction mechanism at the dropping mercury cathode was discussed.
On the basis of our new finding that B grains on the polished surface (Report 1 and 2) of usual iron synthetic ammonia catalysts are less ferromagnetic than A grains, we attempted to separate magnetically B grains from A grains. The more magnetic fraction (called A powder) and the less magnetic fraction (called B powder) have the following properties: 1. B powder as observed by the surface-electron microscope is as strongly electron-emissive as B grains on the polished surface. This suggests a successful separation. 2. Chemical analysis shows that B powder is far richer in K2O and CaO than A powder. 3. X-ray diffraction patterns of A powders separated from usual doubly or triply promoted catalysts are identified with that of magnetite, and those of B powders are all similar and complicated, whether they contain CaO or MgO or not. The product of potash fusion of Fe3O4 with 5 per cent Al2O3 gave the same diffraction pattern as B. Some relation of this new crystal structure to the spinel lattice of magnetite was discussed. In the next paper will be reported the results of ammonia decomposition tests carried out with A and B powders under atmospheric pressure.