(i) The heats of solution of pentaerythritol and mesoerythritol have been measured at 18°C and found to be both of endothermic. (4.77 kcal./mole and 5.24 kcal./mole). (ii) The heats of dilution of both substances are of exothermic. (iii) From the heats of sublimation and of solution, the heats of hydration were determined (26.6 kcal./mole for pentaerythritol and 27.1 kcal./mole for mesoerythritol). (iv) It was found that the intramolecular hydrogen bonds cause considerable deviations from the improved Butler rule on the heats of hydration of alcohols.
1) 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones of β(10) apocamphor-1 -aldehyde and π(8 or 9) apocamphor-7-aldehyde were prepared and their absorption spectra were exactly determined. 2) From the standard E values, the amount of the above compounds in an unknown solution can be calculated from the estimation by a Beckman spectrophotometer.
Measurements of the dichroisms of molecular compounds, s-trinitrobenzene—anthracene and 4,4′-dinitrodiphenyl—diphenyl have been made quantitatively made in the visible and ultraviolet region. It can be concluded that the crystal of the former compound has the same dichroic property as the typical molecular compound already given in the previous report. The dichroism of the latter compound suggests that there exists no special attraction in the direction normal to the molecular plane of dinitrodiphenyl.
(1) The dichroisms of decammine-μ-peroxodicobalt (III) nitrate dihydrate, [(NH3)5Co-O2-Co(NH3)5](NO3)4·2H2O, and of decammine-μ-peroxocobalt (III)-cobalt (IV) nitrate, [(NH3)5Co-O2-Co(NH3)5](NO3)5, and the absorption spectrum of the latter in aqueous solution have been quantitatively measured. (2) The empirical rules on the dichroisms of those crystals have been obtained. (3) The considerations on the absorption spectra of the above compounds have led to the conclusions that there exists a kind of mutual interaction between metallic ions through a bridging peroxy-radical and that the interaction between Co (III) and Co (IV) is considerably larger than that between two Co (III) atoms. The interaction of the above type is supposed to be applicable to the explanation of unusually deep colors in the crystals containing the same atoms in different oxidation states.
(1) An equation of state in analytical form is proposed: (Remark: Graphics omitted.) Values of (2–ε) keep constant over a wide range of pressures of each isotherm. Taking the mean of (2–ε) values at each isotherm, we obtain an equation of state which is more reasonable and accurate than the usual isothermal equation of algebraic form. (2) Tests made with 66 kinds of substances having low dielectric constants prove that values of (2–ε) at critical points are universal to give 1.923±0.008. (3) The following three formulae at the critical point are derived from the new equation in which Vc is expressed in cc./mol. (Remark: Graphics omitted.) The first formula is concordant with ±2.6% average divergence for 66 kinds of low dielectric substances and the two following are also equally concordant with the experimental data.
(1) It was found that polyethylene oxide on paper can readily be recognized with fluorescein as an adsorption indicator. (2) It was found that paper chromatography can be applied also for polyethylene oxide in the range of the average molecular weight 1,000-5,000, as the first case for hydrophilic polymer, in the same manner as low molecular weight substances. (3) It was found that paper chromatography gives a simple new relative method of determination of the average molecular weight of polyethylene oxide in the range mentioned above, where all the other conventional methods encounter serious difficulties.
Attempts were made to transfer the monolayers of octadecylamine on distilled water both onto the metal surface and onto the optical gauge of barium stearate. They did not adhere to the former surface, while with the latter it was shown that the homogeneous film was obtained when the substrate pH. and the piston pressure were favorable for preventing the film from aggregating. Effects of organic anions upon the monoand multilayers of amine were investigated. The increase of the distance between the ionic groups of dicarboxylic acids caused the corresponding expansion and change in thickness of amine monolayer spread on the solution containing these anions. The solution of sodium alginate caused a somewhat large expansion and gave a remarkable rigidity towards the amine monolayer spread on it. The built-up film of amine transferred from the substrate of various organic acids showed a variety of resistance for wettability when treated with aqueous sodium alginate solution. It was found that the resistance for wetting increased with the increasing complexity of the two-dimensional network formed in the film prior to the treatment. These results were discussed with regard to the easiness of overturning.