Molecular rotations of a series of polypeptides of alanine have been calculated theoretically. We have assumed the molecular model which is constructed by sevenmembered rings due to intra-molecular hydrogen bonds (α-type configuration). Calculations are carried out for the both effects of one-electron theory and dynamical coupling theory, and the results correspond relatively well to experimental results. This fact probably indicates the appropriateness of the assumed model. In order to obtain a decisive conclusion, however, it is necessary to proceed with the calculations for other models and compare the results quantitatively. This is a task for future study.
The liquid-vapor equilibrium compositions of the CO2-NH3-Urea-H2O system starting with a mixture of ammonium carbamate and the excess amount of ammonia or carbon dioxide have been calculated at 160°C. and over the range of the loading NH3–CO2 mole ratio of 1.6 to 3.0 from the experimental data presented in the previous paper of this series. The effects of the loading NH3–CO2 mole ratio on the equilibrium compositions have been discussed and the liquid-vapor equilibrium diagram of the system in the presence of excess ammonia or carbon dioxide has been drawn.
(1) Partial specific volume, viscosity, diffusion coefficient of the aqueous solutions of non-ionic detergents are measured. (2) ηsp/C becomes minimum at CMC and this concentration is quite consistent with the concentration where diffusion coefficient varies suddenly. It is interesting that this is the common phenomenon for ionic and non-ionic detergents. (3) The form of ηsp0/C0 vs C0-Curve is analogous to that described in the first report and the second CMC (C2) is also obtained but some abnormality occurs in the part of low concentrations for the substance of which CMC is high. (4) After the completion of micelle formation, diffusion coefficient stays constant and is independent of concentration which suggests that micellar volume is constant and independent of concentration. (5) The influence of an electrolyte on the diffusion is examined and a new idea of the mechanism of “salting out” is proposed. (6) Micellar molecular weight is calculated from the diffusion coefficient assuming that a micelle is spherical.
Among the sterol components of the unsaponifiable substances of corbicula, poriferasterol, clionasterol and cholesterol in addition to corbisterol are present. Among, the unsaponifiable components other than sterols, the presence of a mixture of chimyl and batyl alcohols is indicated. The unsaponifiable components appear to contain also unsaturated members (selachyl alcohol series) corresponding to batyl alcohol series. Besides these components, there occur some other liquid components which contain possibly hydrocarbons. But these unidentified components appear to contain more or less the decomposition products which might have been formed during the distillation. The sterol mixture obtained from corbicula described in the 8th report, like the sterol mixture from corbicula described in the 6th report, has been found to contain brassicas-terol as a di-unsaturated sterol.
Using the oxidized ovalbumin, quantitative precipitin reactions were brought forward. There was some difference between the homogeneous reaction and the cross one in the precipitin reaction upon ovalbumin- and oxidized ovalbumih-serum only in the case of the less antigen region. The serological specificity of ovalbumin diminished considerably by the periodate-oxidation.
(1) The measurement of heats of wetting of strongly acidic and weakly acidic cation exchange resins and strongly basic anion exchange resins was made by a simple method and their great dependence on the adsorbed ion species was found. (2) The series of heat of wetting with ion forms is almost parallel with the lyotropic series of ions, thus it has been shown that this penomenon has an important relation to the hydration of the ions. The acid form of the weakly acidic resin occupies a special position, and this is attributed to the undissociative nature of carboxylic radical. (3) The result on the partially wetted samples supports the view that only a few water molecules which may be called “bound water” take part in the heat of wetting or hydration of ions. (4) A theoretical interpretation based on a few assumptions was attempted and a fair agreement with the experimental results was obtained.
(1) Isonicotinic acid shows a single polaro-graphic reduction wave. It is found from the standpoint of the wave analysis as well as of A.C. polarography that the electrode process is irreversible. (2) The wave height at pH 5.0 is proportional to the concentration of isonicotinic acid in the concentration range from 10−4 to 10−3 mol per liter. (3) Since the single reduction wave is considered to be due to the reduction of undissociated molecules, the i-pH. curve shows an apparent polarographic dissociation curve. (4) The kinetic current due to the recombination of dissociated anions with proton is investigated, and the recombination velocity constant and the thickness of reaction layer are determined according to J. Koutecký and R. Brdicka’s equations.
When fuchsin dye is added in the yeast cultures it causes a change in the physiological properties of the yeasts which is characterstic of the variety of yeast used. For many properties this change becomes more gradual as the concentration of dye increases in the culture. Although there is a vast difference in the nature of change of alcohol forming property of the yeasts studied above, changes of the other properties show a similar trend in both the yeasts under examination, when higher concentrations of fuchsin red is present in the cultures. The presence of fuchsin in the culture is poisonous to the yeasts. This is indicated by the fact that it hinders their growth. This hindrance is directly proportional to the amount of dye in the culture.
(1) The physical meaning of Rao’s molar sound velocity (K) is given. (2) It is found that K-values calculated from the theory are independent of temperature in the case of normal liquids. (3) It is found that the calculated K-values are satisfactorily coincident with the observed ones for normal liquids (aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, ether, acetone, esters, alkyl halides).
(1) The additivity of molar sound velocity has theoretically been derived and the calculated and observed “atomic-” and “radical sound velocity” were shown to coincide with each other with the accuracy of about ±10%. (2) The molar sound velocity derived from the calculated atomic and radical sound velocity was shown to coincide with the observed value with about 10 % deviation for unas-sociated liquids. (e. g., paraffins, alkyl halides, ethers, ketones, esters) (3) The cause of deviation of the calculated and observed values and the application of this theory are briefly discussed.
(1) Associated liquids are analysed with a method similar to that of the previous papers, and the temperature variation of molar sound velocity, comparison with experiment, calculation of the radical sound velocity, additivity, etc. are developed. (2) It seems to be reasonable to distinguish the associated liquids to the first and second kind. This is consistent with the results of the author’s investigation of the viscous flow. (3) Something about the structure of the associated liquids of the first and second kind, and methods of investigating the state of association are discussed.