1) The low boiling fraction of siliconmethylchloride reaction was cohydrolyzed with the three kinds of methylchlorosilane and the methylhydropolysiloxanes, MM′, M′-D′DM′, M′D2M′3T and M′2TD′M′, have been prepared and characterized. 2) A complete series of linear methylhydropolysiloxanes, MD′nM having three to eight silicon atoms have been prepared and characterized from the cohydrolyzate of methyldichlorosilane and trimethylchlorosilane.
1) The absorption spectrum of quinoxaline was observed in anhydrous methanol solution. 2) The longest wave-length π-π transition was observed near 31000–33000 cm−1. 3) The MO calculations were made on ten odd aza, azine, and dihydroazine compounds. 4) Comparing the vertical delocalization energies, the most stable isomer was decided as follows. (Remark: Graphics omitted.) 5) Concerning the stabilities of each dihydroazine isomers, the following tendency was observed. The stabilities of dihydroazine isomers increase according to the certain order of molecular symmetry: C2VX→C2h→Vh. 6) The reduction rates of the delocalization energies, azine to dihydroazine compounds, could be a criterion to predict the stabilities of dihydroazine compound as compared with the corresponding azine compounds. When the rate was less than 6%, only the dihydroazine form could exist steadily; more than 17%, the only stable form was the azine form; and between 6-17%, both forms could exist, while the stability of the azine form was surpassed by that of the dihydroazine form near the rate of 9%. 7) The positions of the longest wavelength absorption were predicted or compared with the observed ones. Agreements were satisfactory in the permissible ranges. 8) The molecular diagrams were drawn on several azine and dihydroazine molecules, which could possibly explain the higher stabilities of dihydroazines, the larger skeletons of molecules.
Three sorts of carbon black, two sorts of pitch coke, violanthrone, and polyvinyl chloride have been subjected to heat treatment up to 3000°C. Changes in crystallinity during the graphitization have been studied by X-ray referring to inter-layer spacings and growth of crystallites. It was found that pitch cokes are graphitized with more facility than carbon blacks, and the other two substances are intermediate. The magnetic susceptibility is determined solely by the size of plane molecules (La) irrespective of the sort of carbons, and tends to a limiting value −6.5×10−6 per gram which is coincident with the value of natural graphite, when La grows above 130 Å. The electrical resistivity decreases as growth of crystallites, but there is a region when La becomes above 40 Å, where it tends to a nearly constant value for each carbon. Those values are different among the groups of carbons, and graphitized pitch cokes have less resistivity than graphitized carbon blacks. It was discussed that fine structures of multi-crystalline states are reflected on the resistivity.
The magnetic susceptibilities of dianthraquinone and its seven related compounds were measured by the Gouy method. The effect of conjugation between the constitutional fragments of the molecule was discussed with the aid of theoretical values of diamagnetic anisotropies. The depression of molar susceptibility of dianthraquinone was attributed to the localization of π-electrons in the central ethylene linkage, owing to the large distortion of the molecule. The remarkable decrease of susceptibility and the complete vanishing of sharp diffraction patterns in X-ray diagram accompanying the color change on heating of dianthraquinone were shown. The author concluded that the net change occurring in the so-called thermochromism of solid dianthraquinone is an irreversible chemical reaction.
From the results on the rates of methanol decomposition by the catalysts of different zinc oxide-chromium oxide compositions the rate (ν) of evolution of carbon monoxide per unit surface area of catalyst has appeared to be represented by the following equation v=ae^αE·e^-E/kT where a and α are constants applicable throughout the two series of catalysts produced by different methods. The activation energy (E) of the methanol decomposition attains to a minimum value when the catalyst has a certain chromia content. It is directly related with the activation energy of electrical conductivity of the catalyst in hydrogen at high temperature but neither with the concentration of n-type conductivity centres nor with that of p-type conductivity centres. At such temperatures, the adsorption of hydrogen on the oxygen atoms in the surface was considered to participate in the electrical conductivity. Moreover, the results on determinations of the surface area and the excess oxygen content, together with the information about the structure obtained from diffraction patterns, reveal that there is a similarity in tendency between the increase of concentration of zinc chromite spinels in the catalyst surface and the decrease of activation energy of the decomposition. This relation can be explained from the view of E. Cremer on the compensation effect. The quantity of chromia added in excess of the proper amount for combination with zinc oxide causes both the surface area and the activation energy to increase towards those of chromia alone. The addition of chromia has therefore a considerable influence upon the activation energy of methanol decomposition, which is quite contrary to what G. Natta described on the methanol synthesis.
1) Polyglycine dispersed on the surface of kaolinite was prepared by the polycondensation of N-carboxylic anhydride or glycine ester on kaolinite. 2) It was concluded that a part of glycyl residues in polyglycine dispersed on kaolinite was easily converted to seryl or threonyl residues by the condensation with formaldehyde or acetaldehyde. 3) The condensation occurred not only at amino terminal glycyl residues but also at non-terminal glycyl residues.
Estimation of the volume of hydrogen consumed by a static method with Cu-Cr-O under atmospheric pressure of hydrogen at 180°C by hydrogenation of whale oil was-studied kinetically. It was observed that the reaction is zero order to the concentration of the molecule to be hydrogenized, and, in spite of it, the reaction velocity gradually decreases due to the reversible poisoning of catalyst. An assumption was made that a poisonous substance is formed in the process of catalysis, and that its amount is proportional to the degree of hydrogenation. The following formula is presented. dx/dt=K_1(N_o-K_2x)
Various stannate phosphors were prepared and some of their emissions were determined. Stannate phosphors emit green, blue or yellowish white light when activated by manganese, blue, violet or red by bismuth, orange, green or blue by lead, while those activated by cerium show blue or red emission. It is expected that the activation by tin also occurs in some cases. This is supported by the fact that the emission of magnesium stannate activated by titanium changes by the variation of flux. For different specimens of calcium stannate activated by titanium or cerium, emission spectra under excitation of cathode rays were measured.