As a project of ROIS promoting the use of open data, a special lecture was given by the legal adiviser Mr. Jiro Makino at the 2nd open public symposium of Center for Social Data Restructuring of the ROIS on the 13th of March 2018. This lecture focused on legal regulations and ethical guidelines related to personal information protection for promoting the use of social survey data and social big data. Prior to the lecture, lecture materials were prepared by the attorney’s office and the researchers of Center for Social Data Structuring.
In this paper, from a viewpoint of social survey researchers, based on the materials prepared for the lecture, the present authors summarze the points of the legulations and ethical guidlines, including some information of developments after the symposium. This shows mainly the current situations in Japan, but it also touches possible influence on general academic research of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) enforced in Europe from May 2018.
Although actual law enforcement may not be completely consistent with interpretations of researchers, this paper is intended as a reference for us to develop humanities, social science and policy-making based on empirical social dataer the symposium.
More than two decades ago, Yamagishi and Yamagishi demonstrated in a seminal article that trust was markedly lower in Japan than in the US. They tentatively attributed the lack of trust to the prevalence of committed long-term relationships in the Japanese economy. These relationships, they argued, assure cooperation because defection is costly and can be effectively sanctioned by the partner. This study’s secondary analysis of the Japanese National Character Survey casts doubt on the assumption that the Japanese preference for committed relationships has had a substantial impact on the level of general trust during the last 35 years, as other factors seem to be more relevant. General trust is weakly positively affected by age but substantially positively affected by education. Processes of cognitive mobilization and the aging of the Japanese society may, therefore, lead to an increase in general trust. The effects of urbanization remain ambiguous. Women were less trustful in the early surveys, but around 1990 gender differences disappeared. All together these variables cannot explain the decline in general trust between 1990 and 2008, which we tentatively attribute to deteriorating economic conditions during the “lost decade” and the worldwide economic crisis in 2008, which seem to have had a particularly strong impact on the youngest cohorts.
In 1986, Carroll, Green and Schaffer proposed the so-called CGS scaling, in which they tried to rectify the joint graphical display of quantification results as proposed in France and widely used throughout the world. The CGS proposal was severely criticized by Greenacre in 1989, and it was abandoned by most researchers. In 1989, Nishisato promised J.D. Carroll that he would write a paper to support the CGS scaling. As is known, the row variates and the column variates derived by quantification theory do not span the same space unless they are perfectly correlated. Yet, the traditional joint graphical display is based on the condition that row variates and column variates occupy the same space. 30 years since then, Nishisato finally succeeded in his paper accepted for publication. This is the current paper which demonstrates that we must double the space for graphical display of rows and columns of the contingency table. He employed the response-pattern table format for the contingency table, and identified contingency space, dual space and residual space, all of which constitute quantification space, and demonstrated that dual space is for the joint graphical display with interesting pair-wise subspace of dual space which shows how discrepant the traditional symmetric graph is from the exact coordinates. It is unfortunate that the CGS scaling did not fully discuss the quantification space but initiated the search for mathematically correct joint graphical display.