This paper briefly reports on a social value survey of China conducted during 2001 fall-2002 winter as part of our cross-national comparative study. The survey areas are the central parts of Beijing and Shanghai. The data show the change and stability of traditional social values of Chinese in a new social system under construction. Our past studies have confirmed that people's attitudes and values on political and economic systems may change in a short term whereas the interpersonal relationships are relatively stable over time. China, however, may be in a time of transition on interpersonal relationships as well as international relationships. For example, although the family is still an important core as the social unit in China, the style of family may be changing in the younger generation. Our data show some differences between the total samples and the younger elite groups in those cities in China. This may present some clues to foresee the near-future of China.
Currently, test operation using Item Response Theory (IRT) requires test items to undergo parameter estimation using examinee data. Furthermore, after equating, the items may be included in an item pool that can be used for several tests. However, this test operation method contains the probability of item content leakage. Thus, estimating item parameters while keeping the item contents secret would be useful. In this study, to make such a situation possible, a model in which item parameters are estimated using a paired comparison from the perspective of the difficulty of items by a rater familiar with the field is proposed. The estimation accuracy of this model was confirmed in a simulation study, and the feasibility of its use in practical settings is demonstrated using actual data.
In this article we study effectiveness of training school programs relative to probation on recidivism for Japanese juvenile delinquents with differing criminal experiences—early versus late involvement, and first-time as opposed to repeat. We measure effectiveness by the times elapsed from release to reincarceration in the Juvenile Classification Homes. We employ proportional hazards model to examine the relationship between the form of treatment and the times to reincarceration. The effect of treatment in training school is found to be complex. Institutionalization of the late-starting first-time offenders (N = 5,675) and of the early-starting repeat offenders (N = 158) is associated with significantly longer times to reincarceration. But for the late-starting repeat offenders (N = 946), we do not find any positive effect of training school.
A method of generalized constrained redundancy analysis (GCRA) is proposed, which incorporates external information in redundancy analysis (RA). In this method both the criterion variables and the orthogonal projector defined by the predictor variables are first decomposed into several components according to the external information, and RA is applied to the decomposed matrices. By combining the terms in the two decompositions, a variety of existing and new methods of RA are realized including a variety of partial (non-partial, partial, semi-partial and bi-partial) and constrained (unconstrained, semi-constrained and bi-constrained) RA. An example is given to illustrate the method.