In order to investigate perceptual dimensions of facial expressions, three-way multidimensional scaling methods were applied to the analysis of two types of judgment data. That is, dissimilarity judgments among facial expressions and rating judgments of each face on 20 emotion-term scales were obtained in experiments, and analyzed by the scaling methods which yielded uniquely oriented configurations. The faces used in the experiments consisted of seventeen schematic facial expressions constructed by combinations of different curvatures of the mouth and eyes. The results successfully exposed two perceptual dimensions, which were interpreted as friendliness-unfriendliness and high activation — low activation. And it was clarified that these dimensions were fairly consistent over the different data types and scaling methods used in the present study.
Since early 1970's several groups both in Japan and in the United States have worked on a new approach to computer-aided clinical decision making. The special feature which distinguishes these works from the traditional ones is that they use physicians' empirical knowledges as the bases of the computer decision logics, and that these knowledges are incorporated into the system as a kind of data instead of as a part of the program themselves. Special care was also paid for flexible man-machine conversational interaction in order to raise the acceptability of the systems. This paper reports a comparative and experimental field study on the usefulness of some of these systems, which we now call intelligent response systems. Although these systems are different among each others in their problem domains, design considerations, and developmental stages, the study still gives several important insights into such systems. Some design criteria and development strategy that are useful for future development of such systems are also mentioned.
The purpose of the present paper was to re-examine our earlier work on the determinants and patterns of occupational achievement among migrants in Indonesian urban centers. With methodological modifications in the use of loglinear analysis, we could confirm our previous findings in the following respects: Occupational achievement of migrants was dependent on their ascribed (age and sex) and achieved (education and job activity) statuses before migration; economic prosperity of subnational social systems exerted limited contextual influence on the causal relationships of achievement; labor absorption by the informal sector was, contrary to popular views, discriminatory with respect to migrant's educational level and previous status of economic activity, and; the occupational incumbency prior to migration was a key to obtaining employment in the formal or informal sectors.
A procedure to obtain the optimal filter in smoothing of time series data has been developed. The performance index which determines the optimality of the filter is considered in terms of the sensitivity of the filter and the reproducibility of the filtered output. Our procedure is especially developed for a kind of multiplicative process. In our procedure, the optimal filter is easily determined using an equation which is characterized mainly by the autocorrelation coefficient of the signal to be recovered and the mean and variance of the noise included in the time series.
A simple proof is given for the existence and the uniqueness of the first principal component that are positive, if all elements of a covariance matrix are positive. An example for ranking the students based on the test scores is given which made this question.
Suppose that the correlations ρ12=ρ23=0.9 are given. Then how can ρ13 deviate from 0.9 ? The answer is 0.62 ≤ ρ13 ≤ 1, as Tables 1 and 2 in this note show. The general formulas for the bounds are given.
A questionnaire on interpersonal attitudes was administered to university students majoring engineering in Singapore, Thailand, and Japan. Examination of responses to individual questions was followed by classification of response types by means of POSA, by characterization of the attitude structure by Quantification III, and by characterization of individual respondents by means of matrices of respondents by item categories, arranged in the order of individual scores and item scores, respectively. It was found that the dimension of attitudes of friendliness to others in general was common in all samples, while attitudes to specific others in specific situations were differently related to each other and to general attitudes in each sample. Inconsistency of unfriendly specific attitudes to each other was noted in every sample, suggesting that transition to an individualistic attitude structure is far from completion.
In this paper we present new methods for testing linguistic similarity using the concept of fuzzy relation. By applying a fuzzy clustering technique, we show that the problem of testing linguistic similarity can be regarded as a clustering problem under fuzzy conditions, and give some methods of measuring the similarity of natural languages.