Geboren am 15.6.1922 in Wien, Volksschule und Realgymnasium in Wien; Matura (Abitur) 1940 in Wien; Arbeitsdienst und Militär (Luftwaffe) von 1940 bis 1942 ; Medizinstudium 1940 in Wien und 1942 bis 1945 in Graz; Abschluß des Medizinstudiumsmit“ausgezeichnet”in den einzelnen Rigorosen an der Universität Graz im Dezember 1945; Promotion zum Dr. med. univ. Jänner 1946; Chemiestudium an der Universität Graz 1946 bis 1949; Promotion zum Dr. phil. für Chemie mit Nebenfach Zoologie an der Universität Graz 1959 ; Assistent am Medizinisch chemischen nstitut und Pregl Laboratorium der Universität Graz 1946 bis 1953; Leiter des Biochemischen Labors des Zoologischen Institutes der Universität Graz 1953 bis 1959; Direktor der Bundesanstalt für Lebensmitteluntersuchung in Graz 1960 bis 1963; Ab 1964 Direktor der Bundesanstalt für Lebensmitteluntersuchung und Lebensmittelforschung in Wien. 1958 Habilitation für Physiologische Chemie an der Universität Graz; seit 1975 Lehrbeauftragter der Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Wien für“Chemie und Physiologie der Ernährung”Lehrtätigkeit an den medizinischen Fakultäten der Universitäten Wien und Graz mit dem Fach“Medizinische Lebensmittelkunde.” Zweimalig (1957 und 1959) Theodor Körner Preis und 1974 Adolf Schärf Preis; 1959 Purkynje Medaille; 1982 Großes Silbernes Ehrenzeichen der Republik Österreich. Seit 20.3. 1945 mit Trude geb. Strauß verheiratet; 1951 der Sohn Friedrich und 1957 die Tochter Eva geboren (beide bereits Dr. med. univ.). Insgesamt 72 Publikationen, darunter eine Monographie, ein Handbuchartikel und ein Kommentar zum österreichischen Lebensmittelgesetz; Mitverfasser des neuen österreichischen Lebensmittelgesetzes von 1975;“Erfinder”zweier international angemeldeter Patente; Vorsitzenderdes Hygieneausschusses derösterreichischen Codexkommission (Kommission zur Herausgabe des österreichischen Lebensmittelbuches), Mitglied mehrerer in und ausländischer wissenschaftlicher Gesellschaften.
The succession of bacterial populations in the large bowel of healthy infants was examined during the first week of life. The predominant fecal organisms by theend of the first week were bifidobacteria, bacteroides, clostridia, enterobacteria, and streptococci. The bacteria isolated from the feces of breast-fed and bottle-fed infants, aged about one month, were identified. The composition of the fecal bacteria varied according to the infant's diet. The organism that showed the highest count and the highest frequency of occurrence in both groups was Bifidobacterium breve. The counts and incidences of Clostridium paraputrificum, C. perfringens, and Bacillus subtilis, the counts of C. clostridiiforme, Bacteroides vulgatus, Veillonella parvula, Lactobacillus gasseri, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus bovis, Enterococcus faecalis, and E. faecium and the incidences of C. difficile, C. tertium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the bottle-fed infants were significantly higher than those in the breast-fed infants. A comparison of the fecal bacteria in healthy adults and aged persons was also made. The numbers of B. distasonis, B. vulgatus, B. adolescentis, and B. longum in the healthy adults were significantly higher than those in the aged persons. A significantly increasednumber of Clostridium paraputrificum was found in the feces of senile subjects. Subsequent studies on development of intestinal microflora in pigs, dogs, rats, and chickens were also described. These dramatic changes in the development of gut colonization were probably brought about by bacterial interactions, as well as changes in food.
In breast-fed newborn infants, a stable microflora having more than 90% Bifidobacterium is usually developed in the colon and the feces within 5 days after birth. As a result, pH value lowers and putrefactive bacteria decrease in the feces.In bottle feeding with the milk containing a certain quantity of lactulose, it is observed that pH value, the population of Bifidobacterium, and lysozyme activity in the feces approach the levels of breast feeding. The ratio of Bifidobacterium to the total anaerobic bacteria, lysozyme activity, and concentration of theorganic acids were increased while pH was lowered in the feces of infants who were fed the follow-up formula food containing lactulose. Composition of the organic acids in the feces varied depending upon the age. The values of molar ratio of acetic acid to lactic acid in feces of suckling infants were 2.7 to 5.3 and they were elevated by 5- to 7-fold in those feces of weaning infants, while lacticacid was not detected in the feces of the adult subjects. In the in vitro experiments, all bifidobacterial species of the present study assimilated lactulose. The activity for lactulose assimilation was, on the contrary, deficient in Clostridium dificile. When C. perfringens or E. coli was cultured simultaneously with the Bifidobacterium in the PYF culture medium containing lactulose, the former two microbials were suppressed remarkably. Infant rats were inoculated with C. perfringens and fed the milk containing lactulose. The occurrence number of the rats in which C. perfringens was detected in the colon also tends to decline duringthe feeding.
A study was made of the effects of fructooligosaccharides, which exist widely inplants such as onion, edible burdock, wheat etc., on the human and animal intestinal flora. Fructooligosaccharides are produced from sucrose with the aid of β-fructofuranosidase from Aspergillus niger on a commercial scale by Meiji Seika Kaisha, Ltd.(Neosugar, Meioligo®). It has been found that they are not hydrolyzed by any digestive enzymes of humans and animals. Moreover utilization byvarious kinds ofintestinal bacteria indicated that Bifidobacterium spp., the Bacteroides fragilis group, Peptostreptococcus spp. and Klebsiella pneumoniae can utilize these saccharides, but Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli and others cannot. The fructooligosaccharides are selectively utilized, particularly by bifidobacteria.The clinical studies showed that fructooligosaccharides administration improved the intestinal flora, with subsequent relief of constipation, improved blood lipids in hyperlipidemia, and suppressed the production of intestinal putrefactivesubstances.
We examined the effects of normal components of intestinal microflora on Shigella infection, using tissue culture infection assay. A Bifidobacterium infantis strain, both viable cells and culture supernatant, interfered strongly with the invasion and/or intracellular multiplication of Shigella organisms. Viable cells of Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis, and Bifidobacterium breve also reduced, to a lesser degree, the percentage of infected HeLa or Henle 407 cells by Shigella, but those of Bacteroides fragilis had no inhibitory effect.
Colonization, the first important step to elicit pathogenicity of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), was reviewed. Colonization of ETEC is related to the production of specific surface antigens (CFAs) or adhesive factors. CFA/I, CFA/II, E8775 and HP/III were reported to be possible CFAs of human ETEC. Bacterial cell surface hydrophobicity and/or mannose-resistant hemagglutination are closelyassociated with the presence of CFAs. Glycolipids and/or glycoproteins are supposed to be receptors for CFAs. Importance of future studies on CFAs is also discussed.
Floral organisms influence the host's immunological activities not only in the mucosal barrier system but also systemically. Using“unnatural”animals, i.e., monoassociated mice, we attempted to explore the stimulatory effect of intestinally colonized floral organisms. These gnotobiotic mice exhibited specific immune response against associated bacteria probably through the intestinal mucosal membrane. IgA antibody to the colonized bacteria was detected in the secretion. In addition, it was suggested that the specific response accompanied a production ofIgA unrelated to the stimulating antigen. Cell mediated immunity to the colonized bacterial antigen could be detected by the footpad reaction as well as the macrophage migration inhibition test with peritoneal exudate cells after monoassociation. These findings suggest that non-specific resistance to invading microorganisms or other noxious agents may be operative through floral organisms in both mucosal and systemic fashions.