Sasa veitchii or "kumazasa" has been used for the preservation of food, or preventing bacterial activity. However, the antiviral activity of kumazasa is poorly understood. In the present study, the antiviral activity of kumazasa extract (KE) was assessed by the plaque reduction assay for the pseudorabies virus (PRV). KE reduced 99% of the plaque formation of PRV at concentrations of 1.2%, showing that KE inhibited PRV adsorption to cells and IE180 expression. The polysaccharide fraction of KE showed a concentration dependent inhibition of PRV plaque formation. We conclude that KE possesses potent anti PRV activity, and the candidate responsible for the antiviral property was the polysaccharide fraction.
To investigate the contamination by and transmission of MRSA/MRCNS in the old NICU of Hospital A and the relocated NICU (new NICU), we isolated and evaluated staphylococci from nurses' palms, towels under the heads of neonates, infant incubators (including portholes and infant covers), and room air. Detection rates of MRSA/MRCNS isolated from different sample locations were 52.6% in the old NICU and 53.4% in the new NICU, which demonstrates that the nurses' palms in both the old and new NICUs and indoor environment were contaminated with MRSA/MRCNS. In the old NICU, numerous MRSA and MRCNS strains (Log 3.17 ± 0.19 cfu/10 cm2) were identified from towels, and the implementation of improvement plans resulted in a decrease in the number of MRSA/MRCNS isolates (Log 1.95 ± 0.57 cfu/10cm2) from the towels used in the new NICU. A homology study of MRSA/MRCNS strains by PFGE DNA restriction patterns identified genotypes that showed similar patterns in the nurses' palms, towels, infant incubators, and room air.
A novel system, the NISSUI rapid detection system, has been developed to rapidly detect yeasts and molds in food. This system consists of a liquid medium containing resazurin as a redox indicator, a unique original micro-well dish containing 676 micro-wells, and a fluorescence-monitoring instrument with an incubator. To evaluate this system, orange juice, milk, and physiological saline solutions artificially inoculated with yeasts or molds were used as samples. Comparison of the new system used at 28ºC for 48 h with a spread-plate method using a potato-dextrose-agar plate at 25ºC for 120 h yielded a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.95. Our data reveal that the new method considerably shortens the time required for detection of yeasts and molds in food.
In the present study, we evaluated the cytotoxicity of anti-allergic ophthalmic solutions in cultured corneal and conjunctival cells, namely SIRC (rabbit corneal epithelium), BCE C/D-1b (bovine corneal epithelial cells), RC-1 (rabbit corneal epithelium), and Chang (human conjunctival cells). The viability of cell cultures was determined following the exposure of cells to 12 commercially available anti-allergic ophthalmic solutions for varying exposure times and at various dilutions using the MTT and neutral red assays. The cell viability score (CVS) was used to compare the toxicity of different drugs. Based on CVS data, the order of cell viability after exposure to the drugs was Zepelin ≥ Tramelas PF ≥ Cumorol PF ≥ Ketotifen PF ≥ Eyevinal = Fumarton ≥ Cumorol > Intal ≥ Rizaben ≥ Tramelas ≥ Patanol Livostin. In conclusion, cell viability was mostly affected by the concentration of benzalkonium chloride rather than the active component and/or the anti-allergic action of the drug. The CVS was useful in comparing the toxicity of different drugs.
Compact Dry X-SA (CD-XSA), a ready-to-use and self-diffusible dry medium sheet culture system for the detection and enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus, was evaluated. A total of 50 S. aureus strains, which were studied for the inclusivity study, grew as blue-colored colonies on the CD-XSA. When 114 bacteria other than S. aureus and 3 yeasts were inoculated for the exclusivity study, 37 strains produced white colonies, and 4 strains produced blue colonies, and 3 strains produced magenta colonies, while 73 other strains failed to grow. The CD-XSA method was compared with the mannitol salt agar with egg yolk (MSEY) method, the Baird-Parker agar (BP) method and the 3M PetrifilmTM STX (3M-STX) method in 105 artificially contaminated food samples. The correlation coefficients between CD-XSA and MSEY, CD-XSA and BP, and CD-XSA and 3M-STX were 0.945, 0.960 and 0.977, respectively