Bacteria of the genus Vibrio are normal habitants of the aquatic environment but the some species are believed to be human pathogens. Pathogenic vibrios produce various pathogenic factors, and the proteases are also recognized to play pathogenic roles in the infection: the direct roles by digesting many kinds of host proteins or indirect roles by processing other pathogenic protein factors. Especially VVP from Vibrio vulnificus is thought to be a major pathogenic factor of the vibrio. Although HA/P, the V. cholerae hemagglutinin/protease, is not a direct toxic factor of cholera vibrio, its significance is an undeniable fact. Production of HA/P is regulated together with major pathogenic factors such as CT (cholera toxin) or TCP (toxin co-regulated pilus) by a quorum-sensing system. HA/P is necessary for full expression of pathogenicity of the vibrio by supporting growth and translocation in the digestive tract. Processing of protein toxins such as CT or El Tor hemolysin is also an important pathogenic role.
There are several well-developed rapid microbiological methods now becoming available that may have useful applications in pharmaceutical and medical devices. They are ATP bioluminescence, fluorescent labeling, electrical resistance, and nucleic acid probes. In choosing to employ rapid methods, the microbiologist should examine their prospective performances against the specific requirements for that sector. Some methods may require expensive equipment and offer full automation, and others represent only a small investment. The regulatory view of these methods is changing and they still officially have not been approved in medical and pharmaceutical area, but it will still be up to the microbiologist to demonstrate that the method chosen is fit for the purpose intended.
The sulfonium compound is a kind of cationic surfactant as well as a quaternary ammonium which has been used widely around the globe. This study investigated the antimicrobial activity, the hydrophobicity, the toxicity of several sulfoniums and their relationship with the aim of clarifying their antimicrobial activity and toxicity, and, furthermore, of predicting their usefulness availability as antimicrobials. As a result, the antimicrobial activity, expressed as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the sulfoniums examined in this study, tended to decrease with the increase of their hydrophobicity, estimated by ClogP, and their antimicrobial activity against the gram-positive bacteria was higher than that against the gram-negative bacteria used in this study. The antimicrobial activities of several sulfoniums against the gram-positive bacteria were higher than those of some common cationic antimicrobials including quaternary ammoniums such as cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and benzalkonium chloride (BKC). In contrast, the antimicrobial activities of the sulfoniums against the gram-negative bacteria were lower than those of some common cationic antimicrobials. Meanwhile the toxicity, in particular, the acute dermal irritation/corrosion of the sulfoniums, tended to be lower than that of common cationic antimicrobials which were toxic in many cases indices. These results suggest that the sulfoniums might become useful antimicrobials which are less hazardous to human health than common cationic antimicrobials.
Twenty-one samples of Thai local fermented foods were screened for thermotolerant bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria. From 529 isolates of lactic acid bacteria, 121 isolates were able to inhibit the growth of certain bacterial strains. Of these 121 isolates, only 11 produced antibacterial agents that were capable of inhibiting the growth of multiple bacterial strains in a liquid medium. One strain (KKU 170) of these 11 isolates produced an antibacterial agent that could strongly inhibit the growth of selected strains of gram-positive bacteria including Listeria sp. The antibacterial agent produced by the strain KKU 170 was identified as a bacteriocin since it was inactivated by proteinase K treatment. The strain KKU 170 was identified as Pediococcus acidilactici by both biochemical tests and molecular biological techniques. Optimal production of bacteriocin by the strain KKU 170 was found in culture medium containing 0.2% glucose, at an initial culture pH of 6.5, and temperature of 45 ºC. The maximum bacteriocin activity (1600 AU ml-1) was reached at the late exponential phase of growth and displayed primary metabolite production. The partially purified bacteriocin of the strain KKU 170 was tolerant to heat treatment at 121 ºC for 30 min.
The immunochromatographic assay, which targets a marker protein co-expressed during the synthesis of cereulide by an emetic Bacillus cereus strain, was used for easily, rapidly and specifically identifying the emetic strains among B. cereus strains from various materials associated with food poisonings. All 50 of the emetic strains showed a positive reaction to the assay, but all 50 diarrheal strains had a negative reaction. The bacterial counts of 108 cfu/ml in enrichment broth and 109 cfu/ml in food-containing enrichment were required for the identification of emetic B. cereus. The present assay could identify easily and specifically the emetic type of B. cereus within 30 min by a pure culture without special techniques and instruments.