Molecular display techniques using microbial cell surfaces have been widely developed in the past twenty years, and are useful tools as whole cell catalysts for various applications such as bioconversion, bioremediation, biosensing, and the screening system of protein libraries. Furthermore, different types of microbial cells among eukaryotic and prokaryotic strains have been investigated for their use in surface display technologies. Recently, several kinds of protein-displaying yeasts have been utilized as bioadsorbents in this platform technology. In particular, these trials have successfully expanded the possibility of applications to metal binding, affinity purification, and receptor-ligand interaction by using the yeast cell surface. In this mini review, we describe the general principles of molecular display technology using yeast cells and its applications, with a particular focus on bioadsorption.
The adequacy of the consume-by date was validated for rice balls sold at convenience stores (CVSs),taking into account the process of distribution. The results indicated that the increase in the viable cell counts differed significantly depending on the type of rice balls and the storage temperature. At 19 h after delivery, Staphylococcus spp. were detected in 4 samples (26.7%) of the Tunamayo samples of Company A and in the majority of the Plum samples of Company B. Results showed there was a strong correlation between the elapsed time after delivery and the viable cell counts for all samples except for the Plum samples of Company B. The regression equations varied for the different types of rice balls and the different storage temperatures. Using the obtained regression equations and assuming a safety factor of 0.7, the appropriate consume-by date was determined to be 11 h for the Tunamayo and 38 h for the Plum of Company A, and 21 h for the Tunamayo of Company B. Among 14 strains of isolated Gram-negative bacteria, 11 strains (78.6%) belonged to the genus Serratia.
We have previously conducted a microflora analysis and examined the biofilm-forming activity of bacteria isolated from toilet bowl biofilms. In the present investigation, to reveal the strain involved in the formation of black dirt in toilet bowls, we performed a microflora analysis of the bacteria and fungi isolated from the black dirt of toilet bowls at ten homes. Among samples from different isolation sites and sampling seasons, although a similar tendency was not seen in bacterial microflora, Exophiala sp. was detected in the fungal microflora from all samples of black dirt except for one, and constituted the major presence. By scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of the formed black dirt, SEM image at × 1,000 and × 5,000 magnification showed objects like hyphae and many bacteria adhering to them, respectively. Micro fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (micro FT-IR) and SEM with X-ray microanalysis (SEM-XMA) were used to investigate the components of black dirt. IR spectra of micro-FT-IR showed typical absorptions associated with amide compounds and protein, and the elements such as C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, and Ba were detected with SEM-XMA. These results showed that black dirt had living body ingredients. Furthermore, Exophiala sp. and Cladosporium sp. strains, which were observed at a high frequency, accumulated 2-hydroxyjuglone (2-HJ) and flaviolin as one of the intermediates in the melanin biosynthetic pathway by the addition of a melanin synthesis inhibitor (tricyclazole) at the time of cultivation. These results suggested strongly that the pigment of black dirt in toilet bowls was melanin produced by Exophiala sp. and Cladosporium sp. strains.
The status of Enterobacteriaceae contamination was investigated in a total of 131 samples of raw horsemeat (Basashi) intended for human consumption purchased from a general meat shop or by mail-order from October 2012 to December 2013. The bacteria were isolated from 105 of the 112 samples (93.8%). Prominent differences in the isolation rate due to the place of manufacture/sale or by the cut of the meat were not observed. Moreover, in a comparison between domestic (92.6%) and imported (100%) samples, the isolation rate was slightly higher in the imported samples.
When Enterobacteriaceae isolated from raw horsemeat was identified, it was highly diverse, with 14 species identified in total. From among these species, Hafnia alvei was the most common, with 33 strains (19.8%),followed by 27 strains (16.2%) of Klebsiella pneumoniae and 26 strains (15.6%) of Enterobacter cloacae, indicating that these three species were dominant. A trend was observed, with the dominant strain differing depending on the place of manufacture/sale or the cut of the meat. H. alvei was isolated at an especially high frequency from imported samples.
An investigation was carried out regarding raw horsemeat intended for human consumption from Yamanashi Prefecture and Canada, regularly purchased from one store in Kanagawa Prefecture. Enterobacteriaceae were isolated during five of nine (55.6%） trials, in which the isolated bacteria were H. alvei, K. pneumoniae, etc. Moreover, they were isolated at a very high isolation rate of seven among 10 trials for the Canadian meat, and H. alvei was the most commonly isolated bacteria. Accordingly, when an investigation was carried out regarding the differences in the strain level in the six isolates of H. alvei periodically isolated from raw horsemeat from Canada by the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern using a restriction enzyme, SfiI, there was a possibility that these were the same H-38 strain (November 2013) and H-64 strain (April 2014) as well as the same H-104 strain (July 2014) and H-131 strain (December 2014).
As mentioned above, it has been demonstrated that a variety of Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from raw horsemeat (Basashi) intended for human consumption, and at a high frequency. Moreover, based on the fact that the same species or strain was chronologically isolated, the possibility of contamination by the same contamination source at different times was suggested.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the synergistic effect of two formulated biofungicides (Rhizoleen-T and Rhizoleen-B) in the suppression of root and bottom rot of lettuce caused by Rhizoctonia solani, as well as the consequent effect on the phytosanitarian status of the plants.The results proved that application of the biofungicides either singly or in combination increased the germination and survival of the lettuce up to 61.67% and 100%, respectively. The phytosanitarian status of the plants, which was indicated by morphological and physiological parameters, was improved as the result of the application of the biofungicides. The noteworthy valuable result was the increase in fresh weight by 52.5% of the control when the two biofungicides were applied as a mixture. Interestingly, the mixture of the two biofungicides brought about a significant increase in most parameters compared to either of them in single preparation. Proline and phenols significantly increased as a result of the application of the biofungicides compared to the control. This means that the treated plants were more resistant against the pathogens. The study concludes that application of the biofungicides protects the lettuce plants against root and bottom rot, and in addition they increase the strength of the defense system of the plants. It is recommended that the application of a biofungicide mixture is a good and effective strategy in the biocontrol of plant diseases.
Of human pathogenic Vibrio species, V. mimicus causes gastroenteritis whereas V. vulnificus causes fatal septicemia after consumption of contaminated seafood. These two pathogens produce hemolytic toxins termed V. mimicus hemolysin (VMH) and V. vulnificus hemolysin (VVH), respectively. These toxins elicit the cytolysis of various eukaryotic cells, as well as erythrocytes. The human intestine secretes cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) to prevent infectious diseases. Paneth cells in the small intestine secrete α-defensin 5 (HD-5) and epithelial cells in the large intestine produce LL-37. In the present study, we examined the bactericidal activities of AMPs against V. mimicus and V. vulnificus. Although HD-5 showed no bactericidal activity, LL-37 revealed significant activity against both Vibrio species, suggesting that neither V. mimicus nor V. vulnificus can multiply in the large intestine. We also tested whether AMPs had the ability to inactivate the hemolytic toxins. Only HD-5 was found to inactivate VMH, but not VVH, in a dose-dependent manner through the direct binding to VMH. Therefore, it is considered that V. mimicus cannot penetrate the small intestinal epithelium because the cytolytic action of VMH is inactivated by HD-5.
The immunochromatographic assay, which targets Shiga toxin 1/verotoxin 1 (VT1) and/or Shiga toxin 2/verotoxin 2 (VT2) independently with same test device, was used for easily, rapidly and specifically detecting verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli among E. coli strains from food and fecal materials. All 10 strains of VT 1 and/or VT 2- producing E. coli among E. coli isolates from various sources showed a positive reaction to VT1- or VT2- antibodies, but other gram-negative and positive bacterial species had a negative reaction. Bacterial counts of 108 cfu/ml in enrichment broth and food suspension were required for the detection of VT-producing E. coli. The IC assay described here could detect easily and specifically the verotoxin-producing E. coli within 20 min by pure culture.
A total of 140 samples of dried food sold in Japan were surveyed and tested for the presence of viable bacteria, distribution of coliform bacteria, and contamination with Cronobacter spp. The samples were purchased from retail stores in Tokyo and Kanagawa Prefecture. Out of the 140 samples tested, viable bacteria were found in 135 samples and coliform bacteria were found in 23 samples. Qualitative and quantitative testing revealed the presence of Cronobacter spp. in 35 (25.0%) and 11 samples (7.9%), respectively. The most commonly found Cronobacter species were C. sakazakii, with the next most common, in order, being C. muytjensii and C. turicensis. The actual numbers of Cronobacter species in the tested dried foods were low, but the widespread contamination particularly in dried herbs and vegetables was confirmed.