A novel competition model for describing bacterial growth in mixed culture was developed in this study. Several model candidates were made with our logistic growth model that precisely describes the growth of a monoculture of bacteria. These candidates were then evaluated for the usefulness in describing growth of two competing species in mixed culture using Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella. Bacterial cells of two species grew at initial doses of 103, 104, and 105 CFU/g at 28ºC. Among the candidates, a model where the Lotka-Volterra model, a general competition model in ecology, was incorporated as a new term in our growth model was the best for describing all types of growth of two competitors in mixed culture. Moreover, the values for the competition coefficient in the model were stable at various combinations of the initial populations of the species. The Baranyi model could also successfully describe the above types of growth in mixed culture when it was coupled with the Gimenez and Dalgaard model. However, the values for the competition coefficients in the competition model varied with the conditions. The present study suggested that our model could be a basic model for describing microbial competition.
Effects of surface contamination and cleaning with hypochlorite wipes on the antibacterial activity of copper-alloyed stainless steel were studied. The antibacterial activity of copper alloyed stainless steel decreased with the increase in the amount of surface contaminant, and the bacterial counts from specimens contaminated with a contaminant, e.g. 1.6 × 10-2 μg/mm2 of bovine serum albumin, were not significantly different from those from ordinary stainless steel specimens. The once contaminated surface could regain its antibacterial activity when it was sufficiently wiped clean with sterile wipes loaded with sodium hypochlorite solution.
The present study evaluates the feasibility of using Artemia franciscana in reducing the Ni concentration of synthetic wastewater by the process of bioaccumulation. Metallothionein protein plays a key role in the uptake of nickel by Artemia. Artemia (Brine shrimp) was exposed to an initial nickel concentration of 40 mg/L. Gradual decrease of nickel was observed from 40 mg/L to 5 mg/L with a removal efficiency of 87.5%. The number of organisms were varied to determine the number for the maximum removal efficiency. Metallothionein protein in Artemia was estimated by the silver saturation method. The physical parameters such as pH were maintained in an alkaline condition of 9-10, temperature was maintained at room temperature and salinity at 30-35‰. These were found to be the optimal conditions for the survival and reduction of nickel by Artemia.
Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, an obligate aerobe and one of the most harmful bacteria in acidic beverages, requires oxygen for growth. However, the relationship between oxygen availability and its growth has not yet been quantified. We examined the correlation between A. acidoterrestris growth and oxygen availability to determine whether A. acidoterrestris can be controlled by restricting oxygen. Airtight containers were filled with YSG broth and apple juice at various oxygen concentrations. Positive correlation (R2=0.9329) was observed between A. acidoterrestris growth and oxygen availability in YSG broth, and a lower but nonetheless slight correlation (R2=0.5604) was observed for apple juice. These results indicate that decreased oxygen availability in a container could restrict growth. As results, the addition of reducing compounds along with airtight conditions may help prevent the deterioration of beverages caused by the proliferation of A. acidoterrestris.
Prediction of microbial growth in mixed culture was studied with a competition model that we had developed recently. The model, which is composed of the new logistic model and the Lotka-Volterra model, is shown to successfully describe the microbial growth of two species in mixed culture using Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella. With the parameter values of the model obtained from the experimental data on monoculture and mixed culture with two species, it then succeeded in predicting the simultaneous growth of the three species in mixed culture inoculated with various cell concentrations. To our knowledge, it is the first time for a prediction model for multiple (three) microbial species to be reported. The model, which is not built on any premise for specific microorganisms, may become a basic competition model for microorganisms in food and food materials.
Heated scallop-shell (HSS) nano-particles, prepared using a wet grinding mill, and microparticles were examined for their antibacterial activity against vegetative bacterial cells and spores. The median diameters of the nano-particles and micro-particles were approximately 20 nm and 30 µm, respectively. The antibacterial activity of HSS against Escherichia coli increased with an increase in concentration, regardless of particle size; however, the antibacterial activity of the nano-particles was much higher than that of micro-particles. The sporicidal activity of the nano-particles was also much higher than that of micro-particles, with HSS nano-particles able to kill Bacillus subtilis spores. A reduction of more than three orders of magnitude for B. subtilis spores was confirmed following a 30 min treatment at 5 mg/ml and 60℃, showing that the combination of HSS nano-particle treatment with mild heating was particularly effective for controlling bacterial spores.
Gas plasma generated and applied under two different systems, atmospheric pressure plasma and low pressure plasma, was used to investigate the inactivation efficacy on the seedborne pathogenic fungus, Rhizoctonia solani, which had been artificially introduced to brassicaceous seeds. Treatment with atmospheric plasma for 10 min markedly reduced the R. solani survival rate from 100% to 3% but delayed seed germination. The low pressure plasma treatment reduced the fungal survival rate from 83% to 1.7% after 10 min and the inactivation effect was dependent on the treatment time. The seed germination rate after treatment with the low pressure plasma was not significantly different from that of untreated seeds. The air temperature around the seeds in the low pressure system was lower than that of the atmospheric system. These results suggested that gas plasma treatment under low pressure could be effective in disinfecting the seeds without damaging them.