Aquaculture is developing so fast that infectious disease outbreak happens regularly. Antibiotic treatment results in development of antibiotic resistance pathogens, thus cause urgent action in searching of other alternative treatment method. Postbiotic was one of the explored strategies among various proposed alternatives. Due to its benefits in agriculture industry, it may be useful in aquaculture industry. Although many reviews were reported on other alternative strategies, the review on postbiotic in aquaculture is limited. This mini review provides an overview of different postbiotics as aquaculture disease control agents. Peptides and exopolysaccharides have antimicrobial properties against bacterial pathogens. Then, short chain fatty acids have both antimicrobial activities against bacterial pathogens and immunostimulating effects to aquatic organism. Vitamins, peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharide are reported as immunostimulants. Finally, cell surface proteins and teichoic acid can act as vaccine.
Healthcare workers should wear appropriate personal protective clothing (PPC) on assuming the risk of exposure to various pathogens. Therefore, it is important to understand PPC performance against pathogen penetration. Currently, standard methods to evaluate and classify the penetration resistance of PPC fabrics with pressure using synthetic blood or phi-X174 phage have been established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). However, the penetration of viral liquid drops (VLDrop) on the PPC without pressure is also a major exposure route and more realistic, necessitating further studies. Here, we evaluated the penetration resistance against VLDrop without pressure using phi-X174 phage on woven and nonwoven fabrics of commercially available PPC classified by the ISO, and analyzed in detail the penetration behaviors of VLDrop by quantifying the phage amounts in leak-through and migration into test fabrics. Our results showed that some nonwoven test fabrics had nearly the same penetration resistance against VLDrop, even if the ISO resistance class differed. Furthermore, the results revealed that the amount of leakage through the fabrics was correlated with the migration amount into the fabric, which was related to fluid-repellency of fabrics, suggesting the effectiveness for penetration resistance. Our study may facilitate more appropriate selection for PPC against pathogen penetration.
Survivability at hyper KCl stress was examined at 30ºC and 37ºC in the presence and absence of an osmoprotectant by using resting cells prepared from marine Vibrio sp. grown at early stationary phase. Survivability was decided by counting colonies. The number of initial cells, 107.1 ± 0.2 (CFU·mL-1), was reduced to 105.1 ± 0.5 and < 101.0 (CFU·mL-1) at 30ºC and 37ºC, respectively, by the exposure of resting cells, that were prepared from cells grown for 8 h at 0.5 M NaCl at 30ºC, to 1.2 M KCl and 50 mM NaCl for 3 h. Betaine externally existed as a final concentration of 50 mM mitigated hyper KCl stress to the resting cells at 37ºC. The number of surviving cells was maintained 104.9 ± 0.3 (CFU·mL-1) when resting cells, 106.5 ± 0.1 (CFU·mL-1), that were prepared from pre-adapted cells to relatively high concentration of KCl in the growth for 10 h at 0.8 M KCl and 50 mM NaCl at 37ºC, were exposed to 1.2 M KCl, 50 mM NaCl, and 50 mM betaine at 37ºC for 3 h. The results indicate that osmoadaptation system(s) in resting cells is temperature sensitive and betaine functions to mitigate hyper KCl stress to the resting cells at 37ºC.
Yamagawa Bay, located in Ibusuki, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan, is a geographically enclosed coastal marine inlet, and its deteriorating seabed sediments are under an anoxic, reductive, sulfide-rich condition. In order to gain insight into diversity of anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (AnPBs) and their ecophysiological roles in the sediments, three approaches were adopted: isolation of AnPBs, PCR-DGGE of 16S rDNA, and PCR-DGGE of pufM. Among the bacterial isolates, relatives of Rhodobacter sphaeroides were most dominant, possibly contributing to transforming organic pollutants in the sediments. Abundance of Chlorobium phaeobacteroides BS1 was suggested by 16S rDNA PCR-DGGE. It could reflect intensive stratification and resultant formation of the anoxic, sulfide-rich layer in addition to extreme low-light adaptation of this strain. Diverse purple non-sulfur or sulfur bacteria as well as aerobic anoxygenic photoheterotrophs were also detected by pufM PCR-DGGE, which could be associated with organic or inorganic sulfur cycling. The outcome of the present study highlights ecophysiologically important roles of AnPBs in the organically polluted marine sediments.
Application of a high-velocity steam-air micromist jet spray (HVS-AMJS) with disinfectants for cleansing the skin is proposed. Low-pressure steam is mixed with compressed air in a nozzle and then sprayed onto a surface of skin or material located approximately 22 cm from the nozzle. The temperature on the sprayed surface was controlled between 40ºC and 45 ºC. The improved HVS-AMJS installed scattering prevention cover with tap water effectively removed normal bacterial flora (total viable count and coliform bacteria) from contaminated skin pieces and pig skin wounds. Furthermore, the cleansing efficacy increased by advanced-treating with bio-shell calcium oxide (BiSCaO), hypochlorous acid (HClO), sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), povidone iodine, or chlorhexidine gluconate. Especially, the improved HVS-AMJS combined with BiSCaO had higher bactericidal activity than when combined with other disinfectants. This study suggests that application of the HVS-AMJS with disinfectants, especially BiSCaO, may be useful for skin cleansing to prevent infection.
Chlorhexidine digluconate inhibits oral bacteria and the formation of dental plaque. Protamine sulfate, a polycationic protein, exerts antibacterial activity by altering the cell wall of bacteria. Extracts of Laminaria japonica and Rosmarinus officinalis display antimicrobial effects against oral pathogens. The purpose of this study was to investigate the synergistic effect of chlorhexidine digluconate and protamine sulfate on the inhibitory activity of L. japonica and R. officinalis extracts against Streptococcus mutans, a major etiological agent for dental caries. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of chlorhexidine digluconate, protamine sulfate, and L. japonica and R. officinalis extracts were determined by broth dilution method. Synergistic effect of chlorhexidine digluconate or protamine sulfate and extracts of L. japonica or R. officinalis was determined by fractional inhibitory concentration index (FIC). FIC demonstrated the synergistic effects of the different combinations of antibacterial agents. In this study, the use of sub-MIC of chlorhexidine digluconate or protamine sulfate with sub-MIC of L. japonica and R. officinalis extracts resulted in synergistic inhibitory effects of these antibacterial agents except for chlorhexidine digluconate and L. japonica combination.