The current pandemic of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has highlighted the importance of disinfectants. As a raw material for next-generation disinfectants, scallop shell-derived calcium oxide (CaO) has been revealed to exhibit significant virucidal and microbicidal activities and is compatible with living tissues and the environment. This minireview summarizes recent progress in the development of disinfectants from scallop shell-CaO, focusing especially on studies of clinical and daily use applications. We describe the preparation, basic characteristics, and virucidal and microbicidal activities of scallop shell-CaO disinfectants. Furthermore, their applications in the disinfection of contaminated masks and the treatment of infected wounds are briefly introduced.
We examined the hospital-wide incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus contamination in a hospital environment to predict the risk of the nosocomial spread of infection. Samples were also taken different surfaces and medical equipment in a general hospital ward and a staff station. The isolates were identified bacterial strains and analyzed by PCR for detection of the mecA gene and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) types (I–V). Overall, out of 146 isolates that were screened, 15.7% of the samples in the hospital wards were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus and 74.7% were isolated with coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS). The methicillin-resistant mecA gene was detected in all oxacillin-resistant S. aureus, and 89% of oxacillin-resistant CNS was identified as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and MRCNS respectively. All S. aureus and CNS from the hospital wards with MRSA patients were detected as MRSA and MRCNS. A widespread distribution of MRSA and MRCNS was detected in the Cuff. The majority of the MRSA and MRCNS isolates in this study were SCCmec type V, which are a community-acquired infection type. The increased incidence and prevalence of community-acquired MRSA and MRCNS, as well as hospital-acquired MRSA, should be recognized as serious healthcare problems.
In this study, spore heat resistance and growth ability at refrigeration temperatures of Bacillus spp. and Paenibacillus spp. were determined. The spore D90°C of 67.6% (23 of 34 strains) ofBacillus and 73.9% (17 of 23 strains) of Paenibacillus was less than 15 min. The growth abilities of both genera were equivalent at 10°C. However, 71.1% (32 of 45 strains) of Paenibacillus and only 6.3% (3 of 48 strains) of Bacillus cereus group could grow at 4°C. Eight B. cereus strains formed spores with higher heat resistance compared to the other Bacillus strains assessed; however, they did not grow at tempreratures below 10°C. Conversely, four Paenibacillus strains formed spores with heat resistance equivalent to that of the eight B. cereus strains and grew at 6°C or lower. In particular, Paenibacillus sp. JCM13343 formed the highest heat-resistant spores (D90°C = 136.1 min) and grew well at 4°C. These results indicate that Paenibacillus can grow in processed foods during refrigerated storage and has the potential to cause spoilage as well as Bacillus. Therefore, Paenibacillus should be considered as one of the targets for microbiological control in refrigerated processed foods.
We isolated a fungus from a 20% (= 200,000 µg/mL) aqueous solution of polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride (PHMB), a widely used antimicrobial and examined its morphology and drug resistance profile. Based on the sequence of the internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA, the fungus was identified as Purpureocillium lilacinum. Although the P. lilacinum type and resistant strains showed similar morphology, the latter had extremely low PHMB susceptibility and was able to grow in 20% aqueous solution of PHMB, which eliminated the type strain. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of PHMB for the resistant strain was significantly higher than that of the type strain and other pathogenic filamentous fungi and yeasts. The susceptibility to antimicrobial agents and antifungal agents other than PHMB was similar to that of the type strain, therefore the drug resistance of the isolate was specific to PHMB. Furthermore, we sequenced the genome of the isolate to predict PHMB resistance-related genes. Despite its high resistance to PHMB, no well-known genes homologous to fungal PHMB-resistant genes were detected in the genome of the resistant strain. In summary, P. lilacinum was found to be significantly more resistant to PHMB than previously reported, via an unidentified mechanism of drug resistance.
Aeromonas hydrophila is a major waterborne pathogen, which induces various diseases in freshwater fish with the capability for zoonotic potential. This study was applied to investigate the prevalence of A. hydrophila in diseased Nile tilapia fish, genetic characterization of the virulence encoding genes (act, aerA, alt, and ast genes), and antibiotic susceptibility. Out of the 500 diseased Nile tilapia fish samples, 70% (350/500) Aeromonas species were isolated. From which 53.4% (187/350) of Aeromonas hydrophila strains were identified. A. hydrophila was detected in kidneys, followed by liver, spleen, intestine, and gills. The results of virulotyping displayed the presence of act, and aerA genes in a high percentage of 40%, followed by alt gene (30%), but ast gene was not detected (0%) in A. hydrophila strains. Based on DNA sequence analysis of three virulence associated-genes (act, aerA, and alt genes), the phylogenetic tree showed the genetic relationship with related species. Finally, the antibiotic susceptibility tests revealed high resistance toward chloramphenicol (67.4%), followed by amikacin (51.9%) and gentamicin (47.1%), whereas a high sensitivity was exhibited toward meropenem (90.9%), followed by ciprofloxacin (84.2%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (73.3%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (64.2%). The multidrug-resistant A. hydrophila strains were observed in 69.0% of strains with six resistance patterns.
Ethanol is an effective disinfectant against the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. However, its effective concentration has not been shown, and we therefore analyzed the effects of different concentrations of ethanol on SARS-CoV-2. When SARS-CoV-2 was treated with varying ethanol concentrations and examined for changes in infectivity, the ethanol concentration at which 99% of the infectious titers were reduced was 24.1% (w/w) [29.3% (v/v)]. For reference, ethanol susceptibility was also examined with other envelope viruses, including influenza virus, vesicular stomatitis virus in the family Rhabdoviridae, and Newcastle disease virus in the family Paramyxoviridae, and the 99% inhibitory concentrations were found to be 28.8%(w/w) [34.8% (v/v)], 24.0% (w/w) [29.2% (v/v)], and 13.3% (w/w) [16.4% (v/v)], respectively. Some differences from SARS-CoV-2 were observed, but the differences were not significant. It was concluded that ethanol at a concentration of 30%(w/w) [36.2% (v/v)] almost completely inactivates SARS-CoV-2.
This pilot study aimed to characterize Riemerella anatipestifer from ducklings, testing their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents and to detect their virulence markers. Seven R. anatipestifer isolates with 11.67% infection rate were identified out of sixty freshly dead ducklings and confirmed by PCR assay targeting gyrBgene. The gyrB gene sequences of R. anatipestifer isolates were 100% identical to each other and also showed 100% sequence similarity to the published gyrB genes. Four virulence genes namely ompA, prtC, hagA, and sspA were identified in all isolates exceptsspA was detected in 5 isolates. The antibiogram revealed higher sensitive to imipenem, amikacin, and rifampin, while, a remarkably high resistance was displayed against ampicillin, penicillin, cefipime, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, ceftazidime, streptomycin and cefoperazone. Proper and rapid identification of R. anatipestifer with detection of their antimicrobial susceptibility and its virulence potential is essential for understanding the epidemiology of R. anatipestifer and to apply the effective control strategies.