The cellular distribution of 5'-nucleotidase (5'—Nase) was studied in the rat tissues at the levels of protein and mRNA by use of immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, and compared with that of reaction products by enzyme-itistochemistiy. 5'-Nase activity, immunoreactivity of ecto-5'-Nase (CD73) and hybridization signals for its mRNA were colocalized in the lymphatic vessels including central lacteals of the small intestine, suggesting that 5'-Nase is actually produced in the lymphatic endothelial cells and allocated to their cell membrane as an enzyme to regulate lymph production and flow. Double immunostainig for CD73 and Factor VIII-related antigen clearly showed the distinction and relationship between lymphatics and the blood vessels. The present findings support our view that 5'-Nase is an available marker of lymphatics, and indicate the usefulness of the histochemical methods for 5'-Nase not only for demonstration of lymphatics, but also for examination of the functional roles and dynamics of 5‘-Nase in the lymphatic endothelial cells in physiological and pathological conditions.
For determining the actual antigenic molecules in human immunodeficiency virus type-l (HIV-l) recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) generated among long term non-progressors (LTNP) who might gain protective immunity against HIV-l through nef-deleted mutants, we have designed replication-defective recombinant HIV-1 particles pseudctyped with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G), cariying an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene in place of the env. VSV-G pseudotyped virions had significantly augmented infectivity for both dividing and non—dividing cells, and EGFP enables single cell analysis to identify the infected cells producing viral antigen p24. These pseudotyped viral particles could also infect Herpesvirus saimiri-transformed human CD4+ T cells (HVS-T) to produce p24 antigen with or without the nef gene. Although the surface expression of CD4 and class I MHC molecules but not class II MHC, Fas and B7-2 molecules was down-modulated in T cells infected with pseudotyped virions expressing the nef gene, none of the above molecules were down-modulated in the cells infected with nef-deleted pseudotyped virions. VSV-G pseudotyped HIV-1 particles encoding the EGFP gene and HSV-T cells will be useful for analyzing the actual target molecules recognized by CTLs having protective capacity against HIV-l in vivo and thus, will open new paths for vaccine development.
In various species, repeated ejaculation over a short period of time results in a marked decrease in the capacity of sexual responses and the activity of sexual arousal/motivation. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of the α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist yohimbine, the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone, and the 5-HT1a. receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) (all of which have been shown to stimulate male sexual arousal/motivation in sexually exhasuted rats), on the diminished ejaculatory capacity induced by repeated ejaculation in dogs. The data obtained show that both the decrease in the amount of ejaculate and the delay onset in ejaculation latency elicited by antecedent ejaculation were completely prevented by a low dose (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) of yohimbine, but not naloxone (l.0—3.0 mg/kg, i.p.) and 8-OH-DPAT (0.0l—0.1 mgfkg, i.p.). Unlike the effects on male sexual arousal/motivation, the present results suggest that yohimbine, naloxone, and 8-OH-DPAT, differentially affect on the diminished ejaculatory capacity and that yohimbine only may be effective for the treatment of ejaculatory dysfunction, which accompanies by the diminished ejaculatory capacity.
The pancreatic duct system is generally regarded as a uniform conduit lined by principal cells that secrete bicarbonate-rich fluid. However, previous studies have suggested the morphological and functional heterogeneity of these cells. We reexamined the fine structure of the principal cells in the rat pancreas by both scanning electron microscopy after exposure of the cells with NaOH maceration, and by transmission electron microscopy according to a conventional method. The specimen was also observed by immunohisochemistry with a monoclonal antibody OS-3 recognizing the renal type B intercalated cell. The ducts in the rat pancreas were lined by a simple epithelium devoid of basal cells, and arborized dichotomously. The duct system consisted of two parts: a fine proximal duct and thicker distal duct. Principal cells in the latter, as compared with those in the former, displayed relatively numerous microplicae on the basolateral membrane and abundant mitochondria in the cytoplasm. The distal duct cells were also unique in their possessing secretory canaliculi opening into the main lumen as well as thick lateral processes for cellular interdigitation. These findings suggest that the distal duct has a greater ability to transport ions than does the proximal one. The antibody OS-3 preferentially labeled the distal duct cells, augmenting their distinction from the proximal duct cells.
Patients with severe atopic dermatitis are sometimes seen even after 15-20 years of age, despite the fact that this is age when atopic dermatitis subsides in usual cases. We consider the possibility that steroid hormones administered as ointment stagnate in the skin and become oxidized cholesterols. Such substances may induce circulation failure and granulocyte-associated inflammation. We herein report the withdrawal of the above ointment in such patients, resulting in successful treatment within several months. Since they suffered from the withdrawal syndrome for the first two or three weeks, acupuncture was performed. Before therapy, these patients showed elevated levels of granulocytes and eosinophils, and an inverse decreased level of lymphocytes in the blood. The number and proportion of granulocytes are known to increase by sympathetic nerve stimulation. This, therefore, indicated that these patients were in a dominant state of the sympathetic nervous system. During the therapy, this leukocyte pattern became much worse due to the withdrawal syndrome. However, in parallel with the amelioration of inflammation, normalization of the leukocyte pattern was observed. These results revealed that, by some yet-undetermined reasons, patients with atopic dermatitis who had been treated by steroid ointment for long time, showed an unusual pattern of leukocytes (i.e., granulocytosis) and that this leukocyte pattern was normalized by the withdrawal of steroid hormones in parallel with the amelioration of the disease.
There was a printing error in the above article on p. 42, in Table 1 titled “Effects of PW11 in vivo”. The correct Table I is shown in the next page. Please replace the corrected Table 1 with the original one.