We examined the effects of loxoprofen, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, and ONO-8711, an EP1-receptor antagonist, on afferent nerve activity during acetic acid (AA, 0.1% v/v)-induced inflammation of the rat urinary bladder. Distension stimulation was performed (vesical pressure of 30 cm H2O) for 2 min. The neuronal discharge was recorded from L6 dorsal root filaments. The discharge was observed just after the beginning of distension and increased gradually thereafter. When the vesical pressure returned to control value, the discharge diminished abruptly. AA infusion increased the total number of spikes to 198 ± 38.8% of control values. AA infusion also produced asynchronous discharge in 39% of the animals. Loxoprofen administration (1 mg/kg, i.v.) reduced the number of spikes to 40.3 ± 14.8% of control values. ONO-8711 administration (1 and 3 mg/kg, i.v.) reduced the number of spikes to 81.6 ± 1.6% and 32.2 ± 7.4% of control values, respectively. These data indicate that loxoprofen or EP1-receptor antagonist inhibit the inflammation-related neuronal activity. EP1 receptors in the peripheral afferent nerve terminal and/or urothelium may facilitate the primary afferent nerve activity, which elicits the inflammation-induced micturition reflex.
We studied the movement of center of gravity (CG) in young and aged subjects during maximum grip of right or left hand. Body-sway was recorded with stabilometry in rest-stand position and in maximum grip. The data from right-or left-handed young subjects were analyzed. Maximum grip power was not different between dominant hand and un-dominant hands. Total length (LNG) and total movement area of CG (REC AREA) during the measurements were significantly larger in maximum grip than in rest-stand. In right-handed subjects, LNG increased to 245% and 250% of rest-stand value, and REC AREA increased to 589% and 633% in right and left hand grip, respectively. In left-handed subjects, LNG increased to 186% and 188% of rest-stand value, and REC AREA increased to 400% and 533% in right and left hand grip, respectively. No significant difference of LNG and REC AREA was observed between right and left hand grip in either hand dominant subject Maximum grip did not affect CG in rest-stand. In aged subjects, maximum grip power was significantly less than in young subjects (48%). LNG and REC AREA in rest-stand were significantly larger in aged subjects than in young subjects (220% and 400%, respectively). They were not different during maximum grip with either hand. While aged subjects have difficulty of controlling CG in rest-stand, they have less problems to stabilize CG during maximum grip. These data indicated that dynamic movement of CG might be important to understand person's activity of daily living.
CD98 is a widely expressed cell surface heterodimetric protein of 125 kDa. Its expression is upregulated during lymphocyte activation induced by mitogen, superantigen, conventional antigen, and a combination of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and ionomycin. However, the role of CD98 in the immune system is not so well understood. The role of CD98 in murine T lymphocyte proliferation was investigated, especially in correlation with the interleukin 2 (IL-2)/interleukin 2 receptor (IL-2R) system. Monoclonal antibody (mAb) directed against murine CD98 heavy chain (mCD98HC) suppressed the proliferation of lymphocytes stimulated with concanavalin A (Con A). Anti-mCD98HC mAb did not suppress the expression of IL-2Rα. Anti-IL-2Rα mAb, which suppressed DNA synthesis, did not inhibit the expression of CD98HC. Murine IL-2 (recombinant), which induced considerable DNA synthesis by lymphocytes stimulated with a sub-optimal dose of Con A, did not induce CD98HC expression in lymphocytes. In addition, anti-mCD98HC mAb did not inhibit the production of IL-2 by lymphocyte stimulated with Con A. Taken together with these findings, it was speculated that the CD98 system is independent of the IL-2/IL-2R system in murine T lymphocyte activation.
Effects of eugenol compounds on the production of nitric oxide (NO) in RAW264.7 macrophages were analyzed in relation to the anti-inflammatory action of these compounds. Eugenol and isoeugenol inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-dependent production of NO, which was due to the inhibition of protein synthesis of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Isoeugenol showed the most effective inhibitory effect and eugenol was less effective. LPS-dependent expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein was also inhibited markedly by isoeugenol, and less effectively by eugenol. Anti-inflammatory action of eugenol compounds may be explained by the inhibition of NO production and COX-2 expression, the pro-inflammatory mediators.
Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is implicated in the inhibitory regulation of the hepatocyte growth in vitro. In vivo, however, the role of TG2 in liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH) is almost unknown. A dramatic increase of TG2 expression and activation is induced by retinoic acid (RA). Here we show the effect of the RA-induced overexpression of TG2 on liver regeneration after PH. Regenerating rat liver was prepared by 70% PH. RA was intraperitoneally injected immediately after PH. TG2 activity was determined by incorporation of 14C-putrescine into dimethylcasein. Cell cycle was evaluated for incorporation of BrdU into hepatocytes and detected by a flow cytometric analysis. The treatment of RA greatly increased TG2 activity at 1 day after PH. At that time, DNA synthesis was significantly reduced by the treatment of RA. The recovery of liver weight after PH was significantly delayed by the treatment of RA. These results suggested that TG2 was involved in growth capacity in regenerating rat liver after PH.
Lesions of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) result in obesity and enhanced cellular proliferation in various organs, including the pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, and liver. Previous studies have suggested that vagal hyperactivity, rather than overeating, induces the peripheral cell proliferation in VMH-lesioned rats. The goal of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of peripheral cell proliferation in VMH-lesion-induced obesity by infusing rats with the acetylcholine agonist, carbachol, and then measuring cellular proliferation in the pancreas and duodenum using immunohistochemistry. The ventromedial hypothalamus was bilaterally lesioned in five rats. In other rats, the bilateral vagus nerves were ligated (vagatomized), and saline or carbachol was continuously administered by an osmotic minipump (n = 5 in each group). Three days later, rats were killed, and cell proliferation was assessed in the pancreas and the duodenum using immunohistochemistry for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Additionally, cellular proliferation in the duodenum was more precisely examined by assessing incorporation of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Cellular proliferation was higher in rats that received carbachol infusions and in rats with VMH-lesions when compared with control rats (P < 0.05, respectively). The pancreatic PCNAexpressing cells were predominantly identified as the B-cells of the islets of Langerhans. These data demonstrate that carbachol infusion can induce pancreatic and duodenal cell proliferation to a degree that was comparable to that in vagal hyperactivity induced by VMH lesions.
The active form of vitamin D3, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (DVD), is a potent inducer of cell differentiation and inhibits proliferation of cells such as human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells. In the present study, we examined the effects of DVD on the expression of exportin-1 and exportin-t, which play essential roles in the transport of mRNA and tRNA, respectively. The results of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction indicated that DVD down-regulated the gene expression of these exportins. Western blotting revealed the decreased production of these proteins in DVD-treated cells. Thus, the present findings of decreased expression of exportin-1 and exportin-t induced by DVD can be correlated to inhibition of the proliferation of HL-60 cells.