To support the role of interferon (IFN)-α and sorafenib combination therapy against renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the effects of IFN-α and sorafenib on tumor growth, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production, and phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and mitogen-activated protein/ERK kinase (MEK) were examined using several cultured RCC cell lines (ACHN, Caki-1, Caki-2, SMKT-R1, SMKT-R2, SMKT-R3 and SMKT-R4). IFN-α or sorafenib alone inhibited the proliferation of all the cell lines except Caki-2, while combined treatment with the two agents showed enhanced inhibitory effects compared to treatment with each agent alone. VEGF production was inhibited by IFN-α alone in ACHN and SMKT-R2 cells and by sorafenib alone in ACHN, Caki-1, SMKT-R1 and SMKT-R2 cells. However, sorafenib increased VEGF production by Caki-2 cells. Interestingly, combined treatment with the two agents suppressed VEGF production by SMKT-R1 and SMKT-R2 cells more strongly than IFN-α or sorafenib alone. Although phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) was increased after 30 min of treatment with IFN-α alone, no difference was observed between control and IFN-α-treated cells after 2 h. Sorafenib decreased p-ERK in ACHN, Caki-1, SMKT-R1 and SMKT-R2 cells, but increased p-ERK in Caki-2, SMKT-R3 and SMKT-R4 cells, after 2 h. Combined treatment with IFN-α and sorafenib decreased p-ERK compared to treatment with each agent alone in all cell lines except Caki-2. However, IFN-α did not inhibit the p-ERK increase induced by sorafenib in Caki-2 cells. Phosphorylated MEK showed similar patterns to p-ERK after the various treatments. In conclusion, combined treatment with IFN-α and sorafenib suppressed cell proliferation and VEGF production more strongly than treatment with each agent alone in several RCC cell lines.
The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing worldwide and proteinuria is a critical prognostic indicator of CKD. Nephrin is produced by podocytes and functions as a slit barrier for inhibition of proteinuria. Nephrin expression is frequently decreased in CKD patients. Nevertheless, the mechanism by which nephrin declines during CKD-related pathological states remains to be determined. Using tensin2-deficient mice (ICGN/Oa strain), we provide evidence that tensin2 is important for glomerular nephrin expression in vivo. In heterozygous mice with a single mutated tensin2 allele, nephrin expression was maintained, while albuminuria was not observed. In contrast, nephrin expression was impaired, especially in the central zones of glomeruli of homozygous mice (with double mutated tensin2 alleles), even at one week after birth. In homozygous mice, extension of synaptopodin, a key actin-associated protein, was also suppressed in the central zone of glomerular tufts. Consistent with the loss of nephrin and synaptopodin expression, severe albuminuria was detected in homozygous ICGN/Oa mice. Therefore, we suggested that tensin2 is involved in expression and extension of nephrin, while tensin2 deficiency may result in proteinuria, associated with the loss of slit integrity.
The distribution and fine structure of lymphatic vessels associated with nerves was studied by immunohistochemistry in the murine craniofacial region. The tissue sections and blocks were immunostained for LYVE-1, protein gene product 9.5, CD34 and aquaporin-1 to demonstrate the lymphatic vessels, nerves, blood vessels and water channel protein, respectively. Transmission electron microscopic examination was also performed to investigate the relationship between the lymphatics and nerves. In the nasal area, the lymphatics were found in dura mater on the cribriform plate and beneath the nasal mucosa, this supposedly supplying the cerebrospinal fluid drainage route along the olfactory nerves. The proximal portions of the cranial nerves were equipped with the lymphatics in the epineurium. In the distal portions of the nerves, the lymphatics were distributed in close proximity of the perineural sheath, and thus might contribute to maintenance of microenvironment suitable for the nerves by an absorptive activity of the lymphatic endothelial cells. The present findings suggest that the lymphatic system associated with the cranial nerves provides the pathway for transport of cerebrospinal fluid, tissue fluid, and free cells involved in immune response and tumor metastasis in the craniofacial region.
Peripheral nerves express GLUT1 in both endoneurial blood vessels and the perineurium and utilize glucose as a major energy substrate, as does the brain. However, under conditions of a reduced utilization of glucose, the brain is dependent upon monocarboxylates such as ketone bodies and lactate, being accompanied by an elevated expression of a monocarboxylate transporter (MCT1) in the blood-brain barrier. The present immunohistochemical study aimed to examine the expression of MCT1 in the peripheral nerves of mice. MCT1 immunoreactivity was found in the perineurial sheath and colocalized with GLUT1, while the endoneurial blood vessels expressed GLUT1 only. An intense expression of MCT1 in the perineurium was confirmed by Western blot and in situ hybridization analyses. Ultrastructurally, the MCT1 and GLUT1 immunoreactivities in the thick perineurium showed an intensity gradient decreasing towards the innermost layer. In neonates, the MCT1 immunoreactivity in the perineurium was intense, while the GLUT1 immunoreactivity was faint or absent. These findings suggest that peripheral nerves depend on monocarboxylates as a major energy source and that MCT1 in the perineurium is responsible for the supply of monocarboxylates to nerve fibers and Schwann cells.
Volume-regulated outwardly rectifying anion channel (VRAC) plays an important role in cellvolume regulation in many types of cells. Little is known about the regulation of VRAC by phosphatidylinositides (PIs), which include phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). We examined the effect of PIs on the VRAC current activated in hypotonic solution in mouse ventricular cells. VRAC current was inhibited strongly by intracellular application of LY294002 (a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor) or anti-PIP3 antibody (PIP3-Ab), and less strongly by anti-PIP2 antibody (PIP2-Ab). LY294002 inhibited regulatory volume decrease in hypotonically swollen cells, which was in parallel with the VRAC inhibition. Intracellular PIP3 or PIP2 influenced neither the basal background current in isotonic solution nor the VRAC current in hypotonic solution. However, PIP3, but not PIP2, restored the VRAC current suppressed by LY294002 or PIP2-Ab. These results suggest that the activation of VRAC current requires the presence of intracellular PIP3, that PI3K-mediated increase in PIP3 level is sufficient to fully activate VRAC current, and that PIP3 alone without osmotic stimulation cannot induce VRAC current. We propose that VRAC in mouse ventricular cells is regulated by PIP3 and/or its down stream signaling pathways.
The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of 45 min of facial massage on the activity of autonomic nervous system, anxiety and mood in 32 healthy women. Autonomic nervous activity was assessed by heart rate variability (HRV) with spectral analysis. In the spectral analysis of HRV, we evaluated the high-frequency components (HF) and the low- to high-frequency ratio (LF/HF ratio), reflecting parasympathetic nervous activity and sympathetic nervous activity, respectively. The State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Profile of Mood Status (POMS) were administered to evaluate psychological status. The score of STAI and negative scale of POMS were significantly reduced following the massage, and only the LF/HF ratio was significantly enhanced after the massage. It was concluded that the facial massage might refresh the subjects by reducing their psychological distress and activating the sympathetic nervous system.
We aimed in the current study to understand the participation of PACAP in stage-specific Leydig and Sertoli cell functions. For this purpose, clonal cell lines TM3 (Leydig) and TM4 (Sertoli) cells, derived from the testis of immature BALB/c mice, were used. PACAP-specific receptors were detected in TM3 cells, but not in TM4 cells, which were characterized as PAC1 (type I) receptors. Stimulation of cAMP accumulation and testosterone secretion were observed in TM3 cells during 1 ∼ 2 h treatment with PACAP38 (10-10 ∼ 10-7 M) or PACAP27 (10-11 ∼ 10-7 M). After around 10 h treatment with 10-11 ∼ 10-7 M PACAP38 or PACAP27, proliferation of TM3 cells was suppressed in time- and dose-dependent manners, which was confirmed by real-time cell electronic sensing (RT-CES) system and phase-contrast microscopy. At 6 h after the addition of PACAP38, the percent cell population in G2/M phases increased significantly, while that in S phase showed significant decrease with little change in G0/G1 phases. The results revealed that PACAP exerts, in addition to early stimulatory effect on cAMP formation-steroidogenesis, sustained suppressive effect on cell proliferation in TM3 cells by controlling progression of the cell cycle. The suppressive action of PACAP on proliferation in TM3 cells supports the stage-specific participation of the peptide in differentiation of immature mouse Leydig cells.
The effects of fucoidan and L-fucose, a fundamental major component of fucoidan, on the growth of human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV-2) in LLCMK2 cells were investigated. Fucoidan inhibited cell fusion and hemadsorption, but L-fucose only partly inhibited both. Virus RNA was not detected in the hPIV-2 infected cells cultured with fucoidan. However, L-fucose did not inhibit virus RNA synthesis. Indirect immunofluorescence study showed that virus protein synthesis was inhibited by fucoidan, but not by L-fucose. Furthermore, using a recombinant, green fluorescence protein-expressing hPIV-2, it was found that virus entry was inhibited by fucoidan, but not by L-fucose. These results suggested that fucoidan inhibited virus adsorption to the surface of the cells by binding to the cell surface and prevented infection, indicating that the sulfated polysaccharide form was important for the inhibition by fucoidan.