Dried-bonito broth is commonly employed as a soup and sauce base in Japanese cuisine and is considered to be a nutritional supplement that promotes recovery from fatigue. Previous human trials have indicated that the ingestion of dried-bonito broth improves several mood states including fatigue, however, the effects in these studies have differed. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of daily ingestion of dried-bonito broth on mood states by a pooled analysis of the randomized placebo-controlled trials. Five comparisons in four trials were selected for the pooled analysis (n = 159). The ingestion of dried-bonito broth significantly decreased the scores for fatigue (P = 0.032) and increased those for vigor (P = 0.027) compared to the placebo ingestion, suggesting that the dried-bonito broth improved fatigue felt in daily life. Furthermore, the ingestion of dried-bonito broth decreased the scores for tension-anxiety (P = 0.004) and confusion (P = 0.008) compared to the placebo ingestion. The ingestion of dried-bonito broth also significantly decreased the scores for total mood disturbance (P = 0.005). These results suggest that the ingestion of dried-bonito broth improves mood states especially fatigue, vigor, tension-anxiety and confusion.
It has been reported that both vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and macrophage colonystimulating factor (M-CSF) can induce osteoclast recruitment. Thus, VEGF and M-CSF are considered to be closely involved in the bone remodeling process. The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in VEGF and M-CSF expression during orthodontic treatment. The expression of VEGF and M-CSF mRNA in osteoblasts and fibroblasts was detected by in situ hybridization during experimental tooth movement in mice. Furthermore, the canine retraction side and the control side of orthodontic patients were compared, revealing a statistically significant increase in both VEGF and M-CSF concentrations in gingival crevicular fluid. These results suggest that orthodontic tooth movement causes an increase in VEGF and M-CSF levels. These factors may induce bone remodeling via osteoclastic bone resorption.
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dexmedetomidine, used as a sedative in the intensive care unit, on human neutrophil apoptosis and superoxide production in vitro. Neutrophils from healthy volunteers were incubated in different concentrations of dexmedetomidine (1, 10 and 100 ng/mL). Apoptosis was assessed by Hoechst 33342 staining, caspase activities and loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP). Superoxide production was determined by the WST-1 assay. After 24 h of incubation, dexmedetomidine accelerated neutrophil apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner and 100 μM yohimbine did not inhibit the apoptosis. Treatment with 100 ng/mL of dexmedetomidine significantly enhanced the activation of caspases-3/7, -8 and -9, and also markedly increased the number of neutrophils with decreased MTP. At 24 h, the suppression of superoxide production was dependent on dexmedetomidine concentrations. However, a clinically relevant concentration (1 ng/mL) of dexmedetomidine did not affect neutrophil apoptosis and superoxide production. These results suggest that high doses of dexmedetomidine induce apoptosis without α2-adrenoceptors stimulus and inhibit superoxide production after long-term incubation. The mechanisms of dexmedetomidine-induced apoptosis are associated with the caspase cascade and loss of MTP.
Changes in the expression of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide (HCN)-gated channels and If currents during the differentiation of embryonic stem cells into cardiac cells remain unknown. We examined changes of HCN genes in expression and function during the differentiation of Nkx2.5-positive cardiac precursor cells derived from mouse ES cells using cell sorting, RTPCR, immunofluorescence and whole cell patch-clamp techniques. Cs+-induced inhibition of automaticity and transcription of HCN genes increased during differentiation. Expressions of Nkx2.5, a marker of cardiac progenitor cell, and Flk1, a marker of hemangioblast, were mutually exclusive. Messenger RNA and proteins encoded by HCN1 and 4 genes were predominantly observed in Nkx2.5-positive cells on day 15, although Flk1-positive cells did not express genes of the HCN family on that day. Cs+-induced prolongation of the cycle of spontaneous action potentials and If currents were predominantly observed on day 15. These results suggested that a fraction of Nkx2.5-positive cardiac precursor cells was committed to pacemaking cells expressing If channels predominantly encoded by HCN 1 and 4 genes.
Ten pairs of protrusions, called accessory lobes (ALs), exist at the lateral sides of avian lumbosacral spinal cords. Histological evidence has shown that neurons are present in AL and behavioral evidence suggests that AL acts as a sensory organ of equilibrium during bipedal walking. However, there is little functional evidence to indicate that cells in AL have neuronal functions. To elucidate this point, we developed a method to dissociate cells from chick AL and made electrophysiological recordings with the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Cells dissociated by enzymatic digestion from chick AL contained two major types of cells. One was round with clear cytosol and the other had a round cell body, rich cytosolic structures and some processes. Rapidly activating inward currents and slowly activating outward currents were recorded in response to depolarizing pulses to -10 mV under the voltage clamp configuration only from the latter type of cells. TTX at 100 nM inhibited the inward current by 85%, indicating the functional expression of TTX-sensitive voltage-gated Na+ channel (VGSC). Activation and inactivation kinetics of the inward currents in AL cells were similar to those of mammalian VGSC. The VGSC-expressing AL cells generated action potentials in response to depolarization under the current clamp configuration. These results clearly indicate that functional neurons expressing fast inactivating and TTXsensitive VGSC which generate action potentials exist in the AL of the chick. These lines of cellular evidence clearly indicate that functional neurons exist in ALs and further support the proposal that the chick ALs function as the sensory organ of equilibrium.
Based on studies of hypophosphatasia, which is a systemic skeletal disorder resulting from tissuenonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) deficiency, TNSALP was suggested to be indispensable for bone mineralization. Recently, we demonstrated that there was a significant difference in bone mineral density (BMD) among haplotypes, which was lowest among TNSALP (787T [Tyr-246Tyr]) homozygotes, highest among TNSALP (787T > C [Tyr246His]) homozygotes, and intermediate among heterozygotes. To analyze protein translated from the TNSALP gene 787T > C, we performed the biosynthesis of TNSALPs using TNSALP cDNA expression vectors. TNSALP (787T) and TNSALP (787T > C) were synthesized similarly as a high-mannose-type 66-kDa form, becoming an 80-kDa form. Expression of the human 787T > C TNSALP gene using the cultured mouse marrow stromal cell line ST2 demonstrated that the protein translated from 787T > C exhibited an ALP-specific activity similarly to that of 787T. Interestingly, the Km value for TNSALP in ST2 cells transfected with the 787T > C TNSALP gene was decreased significantly compared to that of cells carrying the 787T gene (P < 0.01). These results suggest that the significant difference in Km values between the proteins translated from 787T > C and 787T may contribute to regulatory effects on bone metabolism.
This study aimed to assess the effects of examination stress on salivary cortisol, immunoglobulin A (IgA), and chromogranin A (CgA) in nursing students. Saliva samples were collected from 15 healthy females before and immediately after the one-hour examination, and two hours after the examination. Salivary cortisol, IgA, and CgA concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Both IgA and CgA concentrations statistically increased immediately after the examination (P < 0.05) and decreased two hours after the examination. No significant differences were observed between before and after the examination in the salivary cortisol concentration. These findings suggest that the acute stress due to the examination is associated with raised salivary IgA and CgA, but not cortisol.