Green tea and its constituent (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) are known to have apoptosis-inducing activity on tumor cells including human leukemia HL-60 cells, providing an explanation for their anti-cancer effects. In the present study, we compared the sensitivity of undifferentiated cells and differentiated HL-60 cells with normal-like phenotypic characters. HL-60 cells treated with three differentiating agents were found to be resistant to EGCG-mediated apoptosis as compared with undifferentiated cells. Gene and protein expression of 67 kDa laminin receptor was down-regulated in differentiated HL-60 cells, suggesting its contribution to the difference in sensitivity in view of the fact that the receptor is a target of EGCG's action to induce apoptosis. The finding supports the view that EGCG induces apoptosis preferentially in cancer cells as compared with normal counterparts.
Cell culture and animal studies have demonstrated strong chemopreventative effects of green tea and its associated polyphenols in multiple cancers, though the exact mechanisms of action are not well understood. This in vitro study examined the antiproliferative/pro-apoptotic potential of green tea extract (GTE), polyphenon-60 (PP-60), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) in both normal and malignant human bladder cells. Cell growth (proliferation/apoptosis) was measured in UROtsa (normal), SW780 (tumorigenic; low-grade), and TCCSUP (tumorigenic; high-grade) human bladder urothelial cells by cell proliferation (XTT) assay after treatment with 0-80 μg/mL of GTE, PP-60, ECG and EGCG for 72 h. Molecular signaling pathways of catechin-induced apoptosis were analyzed using Human signal transduction RT2 Profiler PCR array (SuperArray). Compared to control-treated cells, treatment with catechin agents significantly suppressed cell growth in a dose-dependent fashion (P < 0.01), with strongest effects evoked by ECG and EGCG in UROtsa cells, ECG in low-grade RT4 and SW780 cells, and PP-60 and EGCG in high-grade TCCSUP and T24 cells. Microarray analysis indicated distinct differences in mRNA gene expression regarding growth signaling pathway activation induced by EGCG in normal/tumorigenic human bladder cell lines, providing a rationale for the putative therapeutic usage of green tea polyphenols against bladder disease.
Proton-coupled monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) are essential for the transport of lactate, ketone bodies, and other monocarboxylates through the plasma membrane. The present immunohistochemical study aimed to examine the expression of MCTs in the brown adipose tissue (BAT) of mice. An intense immunoreactivity for MCT1 was found in the plasma membrane of brown adipose cells at light and electron microscopic levels but not in white adipose cells. The expression of MCT1 in BAT was confirmed by Western blot and in situ hybridization analyses. In fetuses (E17.5) and neonates, the MCT1 mRNA expression of BAT was abundant and appeared more intense than that in adult animals. These results, together with the intense expression of CD147 (a functional partner of MCTs) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase-2 (a component of fatty acid oxidation) in perinatal periods, suggest the involvement of MCT1 in the uptake of monocarboxylates from the circulation for thermogenesis rather than lipogenesis.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is among the most common causes of progressive cognitive impairment in humans and is characterized by neurodegeneration in the brain. Lipid peroxidation is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of AD. 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) results from peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and it in turn gives evidence of lipid peroxidation in vivo. HNE reacts with protein histidine residue to form a stable HNE-histidine Michael adduct. To clarify the influence of lipid peroxidation on the pathogenesis of AD, we measured HNE-histidine Michael adduct in hippocampi from four AD patients and four age-matched controls by means of semiquantitative immunohistochemistry using a specific antibody to cyclic hemiacetal type of HNE-histidine Michael adduct. This antibody does not react with the ring-opened form of HNE-histidine Michael adduct and the pyrrole form of HNE-lysine Michael adduct. The HNE adduct was detected in the hippocampi of both AD and control donors, especially in the CA2, CA3 and CA4 sectors. Immunoreactive intensity of HNE adduct in these sectors were significantly higher in AD patients than in the controls. The HNE adduct was found in the perikarya of pyramidal cells in the hippocampus. These results show that the hippocampi of patients with AD undergo lipid peroxidation and imply that this activity underlies the production of cytotoxic products such as HNE that are responsible for the pathogenesis of AD.
The production of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible NO synthase (NOS) and carbon monoxide (CO) by inducible heme oxygenase (HO) contributes greatly to endotoxemia. Reciprocal relationships have been proposed between the NO/NOS and CO/HO systems. However, the interaction between these systems during endotoxemia is unclear, and it is unknown whether the interactive behavior differs among organs. Using endotoxic rats, we studied the effects of the inducible NOS (iNOS) inhibitor L-canavanine (CAN), and the HO inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) on gene expression and protein levels of iNOS, endothelial NOS (eNOS), inducible HO (HO-1), and constitutive HO (HO-2) in the brain, lung, heart, liver and kidney tissue. Intravenous injection of LPS significantly increased iNOS and HO-1 gene expression in all organs. The effects of LPS on eNOS gene expression differed among organs, with increased expression in the liver and kidney, and no change in the lung, brain and heart. ZPP administration down-regulated the LPS-induced increase in HO-1 expression and produced a further increase in iNOS expression in all organs. These data suggest that the CO/HO system modifies the NO/NOS system in endotoxic organs, and that there were only minor organ-specific behaviors in terms of the relationship between these systems in the organs examined.
This study examined the effects of hyperoxic inhalation on psychological stress-induced salivary biomarkers. To induce psychological stress, eight males (22–24 year old) were performed a simple mathematical calculation. After the task, the subjects inspired either normal air or 100% O2 for 30 min. The control subjects (control trial) did not perform the calculation task and inspired normal air. These three trials were randomly performed at an interval of at least one week, and the two calculation trials with and without 100% O2 inhalation were performed using a single-blinded design. A tendency for increase in salivary cortisol (s-cortisol) and chromogranin A (s-CgA) concentrations, and a significant increase in salivary α-amylase (s-amylase) activity were observed following the task. Hyperoxic inhalation did not affect s-cortisol and s-CgA secretion, but decreased the s-amylase activity. Changes in the increased rate of s-amylase activity and s-CgA concentration showed a significant negative correlation with each other, after the task. These results imply that hyperoxic inhalation attenuates a part of autonomic excitability resulting from psychological stress. Although both s-amylase and s-CgA are employed as biomarkers of autonomic excitability, the s-amylase and s-CgA do not appear to be regulated by the same autonomic nervous system.
Acute renal failure (ARF) occurs in septic patients and is histologically characterized by tubular apical damages, including brush border breakdown. Nevertheless, little information is available to identify the apical injury at a molecular level. Type 2a Na-phosphate (Pi) co-transporter (NaPiT2a) is constitutively expressed by brush borders of proximal tubules under a healthy condition. Therefore, we investigated if NaPiT2a could be used as a negative marker to predict the renal dysfunction, using an animal model of septic ARF. After the treatment of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), mice manifested the tubular apical injury and renal dysfunction, as evidenced by the increase in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that the expression of NaPiT2a by renal proximal tubules became faint, being reciprocal to the development of tubular hypoxia during sepsis. Inversely, the loss in apical NaPiT2a was restored in a regenerating stage, associated with the recovery from renal hypoxia. Overall, there was a negative correlation between the NaPiT2a expression and BUN levels or tubular injury scores in septic mice. Our data indicate that the loss of NaPiT2a is a reliable marker for predicting the progression of septic ARF, while local hypoxia might be involved in the decrease of NaPiT2a expression.
We investigated the effects of endogenous glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) on the development of intestinal mucosa in weanling rats. Three-week-old male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were administered either anti-GLP-2 or normal rabbit serum every other day for 2 weeks. We then measured length, weight, and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation in the intestine on day 13 following the first injection. Administration of anti-GLP-2 serum significantly inhibited both epithelial proliferation in the distal ileum and elongation of the small intestine. These results suggest that intrinsic GLP-2 contributes to the growth of the small intestine during the weanling period.