Ethanol consumption disturbs the balance between the pro- and anti-oxidant systems of the organism, leading to oxidative stress. Electrolyzed-reduced water (ERW) is widely used by people in East Asia for drinking purposes because of its therapeutic properties including scavenging effect of reactive oxygen species. This study was performed to investigate the effect of ERW on acute ethanol-induced hangovers in Sprague-Dawley rats. Alcohol concentration in serum of ERWtreated rats showed significant difference at 1 h, 3 h and 5 h respectively as compared with the rats treated with distilled water. Both alcohol dehydrogenase type 1 and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase related with oxidation of alcohol were significantly increased in liver tissue while the level of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in serum was markedly decreased 24 h after pre-oral administration of ERW. Moreover, oral administration of ERW significantly activated non-ezymatic (glutathione) and enzymatic (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase and catalase) antioxidants in liver tissues compared with the control group. These results suggest that drinking ERW has an effect of alcohol detoxification by antioxidant mechanism and has potentiality for relief of ethanol-induced hangover symptoms.
Oral mucosal tissue can serve as a long-term fluoride reservoir following topical application and retain a small amount of fluoride in oral environment for prevention of dental caries. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of low level sodium fluoride (NaF) on the proliferation and migration of epithelial cells in vitro. Human primary gingival epithelial cells and human epidermal HaCaT keratinocytes were used. Cultured epithelial cells, treated with various concentrations of NaF ranging from 5 μM to 500 μM, were investigated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt (MTS) assay, wound healing assay, invasion assay and quantitative real-time PCR. MTS assay revealed that fluoride added to human gingival epithelial cells elevated cell proliferation at a concentration of 5 μM or more. The wound healing assay and invasion assay confirmed this observation. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that low concentration of NaF up-regulated fibronectin mRNA expression in fluoride-treated cells compared with controls. These results suggest that a low concentration of NaF is able to induce cell proliferation, migration, and matrix production in epithelial cells. Our results provide new information on epithelial cell adhesion and may thus aid in the understanding of periodontal physiology.
A multiplex PCR assay was developed that enabled the simultaneous detection of DNA from 6 types of human herpes virus, HSV-1/2, VZV, EBV, CMV, HHV-6A/B, and HHV-7, using appropriate primer sets and conventional PCR techniques and instruments, with PCR products for each type of virus designed to be easily distinguishable by size. Electropherograms obtained from conventional agarose gels showed that, for each type, the observed number of base pairs corresponded to the intended product and that bands were easily distinguishable from each other. A minimum of 20 copies of viral DNA in a reaction was sufficient to confirm the existence of each of the 6 types of human herpes virus. Comparison of the data obtained from this method and the data obtained from conventional TaqMan PCR using clinical specimens from various sources showed consistent results. The multiplex PCR method reported here for the detection and differentiation of human herpes viruses did not require special equipment or techniques such as hybridization analysis and sequencing analysis and, therefore, enabled us to easily and rapidly detect and identify the 6 types of human herpes virus using conventional methods.
We investigated whether the improvement of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and urinary adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level were related. Fifty-seven patients and 13 normal controls were enrolled in this study. All of the male patients had benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and all of the female patients had overactive bladder (OAB). We administered an alpha-1 adrenergic receptor antagonist (tamsulosin hydrochloride) for BPH, while OAB patients received an anti-muscarinic agent (propiverine hydrochloride). Before and after treatment, we examined LUTS and urinary ATP/creatinine ratio. The urinary ATP/creatinine ratio was lower in males than females in both controls and patients. In the BPH patients, administration of the alpha-1 receptor antagonist decreased LUTS and urinary ATP/creatinine ratio, and improvement of LUTS was greater in patients with a high baseline urinary ATP level. In the OAB patients, administration of the anti-muscarinic agent decreased LUTS and urinary ATP/creatinine ratio, and improvement of LUTS was greater in patients with a high baseline urinary ATP level. Improvement of LUTS by treatment with the alpha-1 receptor antagonist or the anti-muscarinic agent was related to the decrease of urinary ATP/creatinine ratio in patients with BPH or OAB. Measurement of urinary ATP can be used as a marker of pathologic bladder function.
We have examined assay methods and conditions for human liver alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT). This enzyme shows not only the AGT activity but also serine:pyruvate and serine: glyoxylate aminotransferase (SPT and SGT) activities. In the assay of AGT activity using crude enzyme preparations, there is the complication that glutamate:glyoxylate aminotransferase (GGT) also contributes to AGT activity, but at present no other enzyme is known to catalyze transamination between L-serine and glyoxylate or pyruvate. Therefore, an assay for AGT using its SGT activity was investigated in which hydroxypyruvate formed from L-serine in the enzymic reaction with glyoxylate was determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the presence of tris(hydroxym ethyl)aminomethane (Tris) at pH 8.4. A possible obstacle to this assay is that pyruvate formed from L-serine by serine dehydratase (SDH) interferes with SGT assay as an additional substrate of LDH and AGT. However, the SDH activity in human liver is very low, and by performing the SGT reaction in the presence and absence of glyoxylate the SGT activity was represented as the glyoxylate-dependent hydroxypyruvate formation from L-serine. There was a combined good correlation between the AGT, SGT and SPT activities, and the activity ratio, AGT : SGT : SPT was about 1.0 : 0.17 : 0.13.
Mistletoe lectins have various biological activities including anti-cancer and immunomodulatory effects. We previously isolated a lectin (ML-J) from Japanese mistletoe. In the present study, we examined the effects of ML-J on cytokine gene expression in human colon adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells and in the mouse intestine. The results of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction indicated that ML-J caused an upregulation of the gene expression of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-8, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-6 in Caco-2 cells and TNF-α and IL-6 in the duodenum. This study provides the first example to show that a perorally administered plant lectin affects gene expression in the duodenum.
It is well established that the intestine is an important site responsible for the local immune system. It is speculated that people suffering from constipation and carrying fecal residues in the intestine may have a decreased function of this immune system. In this study, colon irrigation, which is cleansing of the colon using a simple hydrotherapy instrument, was performed in 10 subjects with or without the disease. The number of leukocytes and their demarcation were then evaluated. The number and ratio of lymphocytes increased significantly after irrigation. This result suggested that colon irrigation might induce lymphocyte transmigration from gut-associated lymphatic tissues into the circulation, which may improve colon and immune system function.
SCID mice are a model of human severe combined immunodeficiency disease and are deficient in B cell function in addition to T cell function. Tumors from other species are easily transplanted into SCID mice and will grow without being rejected. We previously reported that the chemokine BRAK/CXCL14 is expressed in normal cells but its expression is down regulated in an in vitro cancer progression model, suggesting that it has the potential for antitumor activity. Here we report that the growth of BRAK/CXCL14 expression vector-transfected oral cancer cells was completely (100%) suppressed in SCID mouse xenografts even though mock-vector introduced control tumor cells grew well with 100% of animals developing tumors. In addition, suppression of xenografts was much faster and the rate was much higher in SCID mice than in T cell functiondeficient nude mice. These data indicate the possibility that BRAK expression inhibits tumor cell establishment by regulating interactions between tumor stem cells and NK cells and/or suppressing formation of tumor microvessels.