To investigate the level of serum S100A6 in patients with bladder cancer and in healthy controls and compare these levels with clinicopathologic findings, we evaluated the level of serum S100A6 in 30 healthy controls and 50 patients with bladder cancer diagnosed via transurethral resection of bladder tumor and/or radical cystectomy. S100A6 in sera was detected by employing automatic dot blot systems, and the micro Dot Blot array with a 256-solid pin configuration. The normalized signal of serum S100A6 expression in bladder cancer patients was significantly higher than that of healthy controls (P = 0.001). Serum S100A6 expression of non-muscle-invasive cancer (NMIC) was significantly higher than that of healthy controls (P = 0.04). Furthermore, the S100A6 serum level in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer was significantly higher than that in patient with NMIC (P = 0.004). The sensitivity and specificity were 48.0% (95% CI: 0.337–0.626) and 93.3% (95% CI: 0.779–0.992), respectively. The area under the curve was 0.727. Serum S100A6 expression is a potentially effective detection marker for bladder cancer. Applying this serum marker to clinical practice would require less-invasive examinations of patients and would help to detect life-threatening cancerous lesions earlier than current modalities.
We recently reported that G-protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) is expressed on taste buds, and that rodents showed preference for long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) at a low concentration. We also showed that the LCFA (1% linoleic acid) increased the extracellular dopamine (DA) level in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), which participates in reward behavior. However, the mechanism underlying the involvement of the GPR120-agonistic activity of LCFA in the palatability of dietary fat remains elusive. Therefore, we examined the association between the GPR120-agonistic activity and palatability of LCFA. First, we measured Ca2+ signaling in HEK293 cells stably expressing GPR120 under stimulation by various LCFAs. We then assessed the palatability of the various LCFAs by testing the licking behavior in mice and measured the changes in the NAc-DA level by in vivo microdialysis. Consequently, 14- to 22-carbon unsaturated LCFAs showed strong GPR120-agonistic activity. Additionally, mice displayed high licking response to unsaturated 16- and 18-carbon LCFAs, and unsaturated 18-carbon LCFA significantly increased the DA level. The licking rate and the LCFA-dependent increase in DA level also correlated well with the GPR120- agonistic activity. These findings demonstrate that chemoreception of LCFA by GPR120 is involved in the recognition and palatability of dietary fat.
Tumor infiltrating dendritic cells (TIDCs) are thought to be potent antigen-presenting cells able to activate tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) or tolerogenic DCs that suppress immune reaction against tumors to escape. We have recently reported that majority of these TIDCs were DEC-205+ DCs having a cross-presenting ability of captured tumor antigens to CD8+ T cells via class I MHC (MHC-I) molecules, nevertheless, when the TIDCs expressed down-modulated costimulatory molecules, such as CD80 and CD86, they will inhibit the priming and activation of immune effectors (Immunol. Cell Biol., 91: 545–555, 2013). Here, we show that DC-precursors (preDCs) but not the established DCs become tolerogenic DCs expressing down-regulated costimulatory molecules having low responsiveness to LPS or tumor cells, when exposed to soluble factors released from the encountered ovarian tumors in the early phase of their development. However, we found that we could reduce the secretion of those soluble factors with a low, nontoxic concentration of paclitaxel (PTX) and we could stop the preDCs to be tolerogenic DCs and maintain DC functions. These findings indicate that we could prevent the induction of tolerogenic DCs from preDCs by using low, non-toxic doses of anti-cancer drugs to establish DCs that effectively elicit tumor-specific CTLs.
CXCL14/BRAK (BRAK) is a secreted chemokine with anti-tumor activity, and its expression is suppressed in tumor cells. We previously reported the anti-tumor activity of BRAK in cell lines of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and the suppression of BRAK secretion in these cells. BRAK secretion in fibrosarcoma cells is restored by Fasudil, which is a Rho-kinase (ROCK) inhibitor. In this study, we examined the anti-tumor effect of BRAK by evaluating its gene expression and protein secretion in HNSCC cell lines. We found that BRAK mediated the suppressive effect of Fasudil against HNSCC cells. Tumor development in female BALB/cAJclnu/nu mice was suppressed by Fasudil. Also secretion of BRAK protein by tumor cell lines in vitro was significantly stimulated by Fasudil treatment. Similarly, the production of BRAK protein was significantly increased by the addition of Fasudil to cultured tumor cells. Furthermore Fasudil significantly increased BRAK gene expression at the mRNA level in HNSCC cell line. Inhibition of the RhoA/ROCK pathway by siRNAs significantly stimulated BRAK gene expression. These results show that the tumor-suppressive effect of Fasudil was mediated by BRAK, suggesting that Fasudil may therefore be useful for the treatment of HNSCC.
Although acetaminophen-induced liver injury in mice has been extensively studied as a model of human acute drug-induced hepatitis, the mechanism of liver injury remains unclear. Liver injury is believed to be initiated by metabolic conversion of acetaminophen to the highly reactive intermediate N-acetyl p-benzoquinoneimine, and is aggravated by subsequent oxidative stress via reactive oxygen species (ROS), including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the hydroxyl radical (•OH). In this study, we found that a highly toxic unsaturated aldehyde acrolein, a byproduct of oxidative stress, has a major role in acetaminophen-induced liver injury. Acetaminophen administration in mice resulted in liver damage and increased acrolein-protein adduct formation. However, both of them were decreased by treatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) or sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (MESNA), two known acrolein scavengers. The specificity of NAC and MESNA was confirmed in cell culture, because acrolein toxicity, but not H2O2 or •OH toxicity, was inhibited by NAC and MESNA. These results suggest that acrolein may be more strongly correlated with acetaminophen-induced liver injury than ROS, and that acrolein produced by acetaminophen-induced oxidative stress can spread from dying cells at the primary injury site, causing damage to the adjacent cells and aggravating liver injury.
Transplantation of cultured adipose-derived regenerative cells (ADRCs) into ischemic tissues promotes neovascularization and blood perfusion recovery. These effects are attenuated in diabetes patients. We examined the effects of hyperglycemia on the angiogenic capacity of ADRCs derived from Wistar rats both in vivo and in vitro. Cultured ADRCs were predominantly composed of CD90 positive cells; prevalence of CD90 positive cells was not affected by hyperglycemia. mRNA and protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were significantly decreased in ADRCs under hyperglycemic conditions independent of osmolarity, whereas mRNA levels of hepatocyte growth factor and fibroblast growth factor were unaffected. Since ADRCs express glucose transporter proteins GLUT1, 3 and 4, we examined the effects of the glucose transporter
inhibitor phloretin on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and angiogenic factors. Phloretin decreased the glucose uptake rate, reduced ROS, and increased VEGF mRNA in ADRCs exposed to a hyperglycemic condition. In vivo transplantation of ADRCs cultured under hyperglycemic conditions into mouse ischemic limbs resulted in significantly decreased blood perfusion and capillary density in ischemic regions compared with transplantation of ADRCs cultured under normoglycemic conditions. These results suggest that hyperglycemia impaired VEGF production in ADRCs via an increase of ROS, impairing the angiogenic capacity of ADRCs transplanted into ischemic limbs.
The Project HOPE (High-tech Omics-based Patient Evaluation) for cancer medicine aims to evaluate biological characteristics of each cancer tissue as well as diathesis of each patient in around 1,000 consecutive cases per year, who receive operations at the Shizuoka Cancer Center. Cancer tissues are investigated by whole-exome sequencing for 18,835 genes, focusing on 12,776 in-house cancer hotspots from 483 cancer-associated genes. To confirm cancer-specific genetic changes, we analyzed blood cells to collate with data of cancer tissues, and we reevaluate cancer tissues by comprehensive cancer panel for 409 genes. In order to investigate diathesis of the patients, we evaluate 43,015 hotspots associated with non-cancerous diseases. In terms of gene expression profiling, we analyze cancer-specific alterations for 29,833 genes using tumor and adjacent normal tissues. If and when necessary, we investigate tumor and normal tissues by proteomics and metabolomics. The model experiments using glioblastoma cell lines demonstrated that the method is appropriate for clinical application. The Project HOPE makes it possible to implement individualized medicine and to practice preventive and presymptomatic medicine for cancer patients. Furthermore, the project can create important seeds for research and development in cancer medicine.