Clinical trials involving in patients with osteoporosis have reported that activated vitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3, calcitriol) can prevent falling by acting on the skeletal muscles. However, pharmacological mechanisms of 1α,25(OH)2D3 with respect to skeletal muscle hypertrophy or atrophy are still poorly understood. Therefore, we examined changes in the expression of several related genes in human myotubes to test whether 1α,25(OH)2D3 influences hypertrophy and atrophy of skeletal muscle. Myotubes treated with 1α,25(OH)2D3 increased interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression and inhibited expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), whereas the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) that is involved in muscle hypertrophy was not affected. However, 1α,25(OH)2D3 treatment significantly inhibited the expression of muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx) and muscle RING finger 1 (MuRF1), ubiquitin ligases involved in muscle atrophy. The analysis of pathways using microarray data suggested that 1α,25(OH)2D3 upregulates AKT-1 by inhibiting the expression of protein phosphatase 2 (PP2A), a phosphatase acting on AKT-1, in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathway, thereby inhibiting the expression of ubiquitin ligases. Thus, this study showed that 1α,25(OH)2D3 might have an inhibitory effect on the expression of MAFbx and MuRF1 in skeletal muscle and a suppressive effect on muscle degradation in patients with osteoporosis.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of high-frequency peripheral nerve magnetic stimulation on the upper limb function. Twenty-five healthy adults (16 men and 9 women) participated in this study. The radial nerve of the non-dominant hand was stimulated by high-frequency magnetic stimulation device. A total of 600 impulses were applied at a frequency of 20 Hz and intensity of 1.2 resting motor threshold (rMT). At three time points (before, immediately after, and 15 min after stimulation), muscle hardness of the extensor digitorum muscle on the stimulated side was measured using a mechanical tissue hardness meter and a shear wave imaging device, cephalic venous blood flow on the stimulated side was measured using an ultrasound system, and the Box and Block test (BBT) was performed. Mechanical tissue hardness results did not show any significant differences between before, immediately after, and 15 min after stimulation. Measurements via shear wave imaging showed that muscle hardness significantly decreased both immediately and 15 min after stimulation compared to before stimulation (P < 0.05). Peripheral venous blood flow and BBT score significantly increased both immediately and 15 min after stimulation compared to before stimulation (P < 0.01). High-frequency peripheral nerve magnetic stimulation can achieve effects similar to electrical stimulation in a less invasive manner, and may therefore become an important element in next-generation rehabilitation.
DEC1 [basic helix-loop-helix (BHLH) E40/Stra13/Sharp2] and DEC2 (BHLHE41/Sharp1) are BHLH transcription factors that are associated with the regulation of apoptosis, cell proliferation, and circadian rhythms, as well as malignancy in various cancers. However, the roles of DEC1 and DEC2 expression in esophageal cancer are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the roles of DEC1 and DEC2 in human esophageal cancer TE 5 and TE 10 cells that had been treated with cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) (cisplatin: CDDP). Expression of DEC1 and DEC2 was decreased with CDDP treatment in TE 5 cells; however, knockdown or overexpression of DEC1/DEC2 had little effects on CDDP-induced apoptosis in TE 5 cells. DEC1 expression was up-regulated in CDDP-treated TE 10 cells, whereas DEC2 expression was unchanged. DEC1 knockdown by siRNA in TE 10 decreased the amount of cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) after treatment with CDDP, whereas DEC2 knockdown had no effects on the amount of cleaved PARP in both the presence and absence of CDDP. We also demonstrated that DEC1 overexpression promoted cleaved PARP expression, whereas DEC2 overexpression had no effects on the amount of cleaved PARP in TE 10 cells. These results suggested that DEC1 has pro-apoptotic effects on human esophageal cancer TE 10 cells of well-differentiated type.
We previously demonstrated that c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylates serine 62 of Bcl-xL to induce the degradation of Bcl-xL and apoptosis in WEHI-231 cells upon BCR crosslinking. In order to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms underlying the phosphorylation of Bcl-xL, we prepared an assay system in which JNK phosphorylated Bcl-xL in HEK293T cells. Consequently, we found that a signal transduction molecule, alpha4, enhanced the phosphorylation of Bcl-xL by JNK, while the co-expression of C-terminal alpha4 (220–340) diminished the phosphorylation of Bcl-xL induced by JNK. Furthermore, full-length alpha4 associated with both JNK and Bcl-xL, whereas C-terminal alpha4 (220–340) associated only with Bcl-xL, not JNK. In addition, WEHI-231 cells transfected with the cDNA of C-terminal alpha4 (220–340) exhibited decreased phosphorylation of Bcl-xL and stronger resistance to apoptosis induced by BCR crosslinking. These results indicate that alpha4 is an important regulatory molecule of apoptosis induced by BCR crosslinking in WEHI-231 cells and that C-terminal alpha4 (220–340) functions as a dominant negative form.
Nfkbiz is an inhibitor of nuclear factor κB (IκB) protein localized to the nucleus. We previously found that Nfkbiz gene-disrupted mice showed atopic dermatitis-like lesion, implying the important role of Nfkbiz in skin homeostasis. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of interferon (IFN)-γ on Nfkbiz expression in keratinocytes. IFN-γ induced Nfkbiz expression at a comparable level to IL-1. Promoter analysis revealed that interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE) located in the Nfkbiz promoter region is important for responding to the stimulation. Interestingly, IFN-γ and IL-1 displayed synergism in terms of inducing Nfkbiz expression. By using selective inhibitors, we found that Janus activated kinase (JAK) 1 and nuclear factor (NF)-κB are important for Nfkbiz expression after IFN-γ stimulation and for synergism between IFN-γ and IL-1. These findings indicate a possible important role of Nfkbiz in modulating the progression of inflammatory diseases in which IFN-γ and IL-1 are abundant.
We attempted to clarify in detail the conditions of disinfection using electrolyzed strongly acidic water (ESW) against Mycobacteria, and the recovery of the disinfection potential of inactivated ESW by re-electrolysis. We mixed ESW containing 10, 20, and 30 ppm free chlorine with M. bovis cells (105–108 CFU/mL) for 0–7 min. The disinfection potential of ESW positively correlated with free chlorine concentration, and negatively correlated with the initial density of bacterial cells. To clarify the recovery of the disinfection potential of inactivated ESW by re-electrolysis, we mixed ESW containing 10 ppm free chlorine with M. bovis cells (107 CFU/mL) for 1 min. The number of viable cells decreased to 1/103, but the cells were still detected. After re-electrolysis for 7 min, viable cells were not detected. Moreover, we confirmed by reusing the re-electrolyzed water against M. bovis cells that it regained its disinfection potential. These findings indicate that ESW once inactivated during disinfection can be re-activated by re-electrolysis. In conclusion, we were able to clarify in detail the conditions of ESW against Mycobacteria, and found the recovery of the disinfection potential of inactivated ESW by re-electrolysis.
Cell-surface F1F0-ATP synthase was involved in the cell signaling mediating various biological functions. Recently, we found that cell-surface F1F0-ATP synthase plays a role on intracellular triacylglycerol accumulation in adipocytes, and yet, the underlying mechanisms remained largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of extracellular ATP on the intracellular triacylglycerol accumulation. We demonstrated that significant amounts of ATP were produced extracellularly by cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes and that the antibodies against α and β subunits of F1F0-ATP synthase inhibited the extracellular ATP production. Piceatannol, a F1F0-ATP synthase inhibitor, and apyrase, an enzyme which degrades extracellular ATP, suppressed triacylglycerol accumulation. The selective P2Y1 receptor antagonist MRS2500 significantly inhibited triacylglycerol accumulation, whereas the selective P2X receptor antagonist NF279 has less effect. The present results indicate that cell-surface F1F0-ATP synthase on adipocytes is functional in extracellular ATP production and that the extracellular ATP produced contributes, at least in part, to the cell-surface F1F0-ATP synthase-mediated intracellular triacylglycerol accumulation in adipocytes through P2Y1 receptor.
Autophagy is essential for the maintenance of cellular metabolism. Once autophagy is induced in cells, the isolation membrane forms a so-called phagophore. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is one of several candidates for the membrane source for phagophores. Recently, LC3-positive isolation membranes were found to emerge from a DFCP1 (double FYVE domain-containing protein)-positive, ER-associated compartment called the omegasome. Although the GFP-tagged DFCP1 protein has been examined in cultured cells, little is known about the precise cellular and tissue distribution of this endogenous protein. To determine the expression of the endogenous DFCP1 protein, we produced antibodies specific to mouse DFCP1 protein. The antibody recognized both human and mouse DFCP1 proteins, both of which have molecular masses of approximately 87 kDa. In HeLa cells under normal conditions, immunoreactivity for DFCP1 was found dotted or tubular along Tom20-positive filamentous mitochondria and was only partially co-localized in the ER or Golgi apparatus. Moreover, under starved conditions, distinct DFCP1-positive structures became more dotted and scattered in the cytoplasm, while one part of the LC3-positive autophagosomes were immunopositive for DFCP1. These results indicate that an antibody raised against DFCP1 could be a useful tool in explaining the mechanism of phagophore formation from omegasome compartments.
The effect of repetitive mild hyperthermia on body temperature, the autonomic nervous system, and innate and adaptive immunity was investigated using a new hyperthermia treatment system, nanomist sauna (NMS). Six healthy volunteers participated and the concentration of catecholamines and cortisol, and the frequency and function of leukocytes in the peripheral blood were investigated before and after successive 7 days of hyperthermia treatment (20 min/day, 40°C, 100% relative humidity). After treatment, the blood level of adrenaline and cortisol on the 7th day was decreased compared with the 1st day, indicating the suppression of the sympathetic nervous system activity. Moreover, the frequency of CD56+NK, CD56+NKT and B cells on the 7th day tended to be increased compared with the 1st day. The frequency of HLA-DR-positive NK and NKT cells and expression of HLA-DR on B and T cells increased. The cytotoxicity of NK cells and proliferative response of B cells were also elevated. The results indicate that repetitive mild hyperthermia treatment might suppress excessive sympathetic dominance and modify immunity. Additionally, because it can provide the same effects as conventional hyperthermia treatments with minimal burden to the body, NMS may be a novel patient- and elderly-friendly hyperthermia treatment for health promotion.
Proliferated IgG4+ plasma cells are polyclonal, suggesting that the pathogenesis of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) involves upstream events related to the regulation of IgG4 expansion. We hypothesized that lymphoid follicle formation may play an important role in the pathogenesis of IgG4-RD. Using various antibodies, especially against monocyte, macrophage, and follicular dendritic cell markers, we immunohistochemically assessed the distribution of immune cells in lymphoid follicles. Pathological findings of tissue samples from patients with IgG4-RD (n = 22), reactive hyperplasia (n = 3), multicentric Castleman’s disease (n = 3), and Sjögren’s syndrome (n = 13) were analyzed. CD14-positive lymphoid follicles were observed only in patients with IgG4-RD, and CD14-positive cells were identified as follicular dendritic cells by multicolor immunohistochemistry. There were few differences in the distributions of other cell types between the IgG4-RD and control groups. The presence of CD14+ follicular dendritic cells in lymphoid follicles may play a pathophysiological role in IgG4-RD.
Mutations in the breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA2 leading to the failure of interactions with the recombinase RAD51 are associated with an increased risk of cancer in humans. This interaction depends on the eight BRC repeat (BRC1–8) sequences in BRCA2. We previously reported that canine BRC3 has two polymorphisms (T1425P and K1435R) influencing the interaction with RAD51, and 1435R was identified in mammary tumor dog samples. In this study, we investigated the sequence variations of BRC3 and 4 in 236 dogs of five breeds. Allele frequencies of 1425P and 1435R were 0.063 and 0.314, respectively, and there was no other polymorphism in the sequenced region. A mammalian two-hybrid assay using BRC3–4 sequences demonstrated that 1425P allele reduced the binding strength with RAD51 but 1435R had no effect. These results may provide an insight into the functions of not only individual but also multiple BRC repeats of BRCA2 in dogs.