A number of studies have shown that oral administration of collagen hydrolysate (CH) results in the absorption of di- and tri-peptides. In order to understand the dynamics of CH absorption and metabolism, molecular profiles of hydroxyproline (Hyp) and Hyp-containing peptides (HCPs) were analyzed by in situ perfusion of rat intestine and liver. The total amount of absorbed HCPs during 1 h of perfusion was 16.6 μmol, which was significantly higher than that of free Hyp (6.6 μmol). In addition, HCPs were also reliably detected in hepatic perfusate at the level higher than free Hyp. Thus, the results demonstrated that CH is absorbed predominantly as peptides, which subsequently enter systemic circulation. Size exclusion chromatography showed that perfusates include significant amount of HCPs larger than tripeptides, leading us to analyze these peptides in detail. Mass spectrometric analysis of intestinal perfusate finally identified three CH-derived peptides, which are surprisingly large as food-derived circulating peptides. Peptide quantitation by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) revealed that di- and tri-peptides, which are previously identified as major peptides in circulating blood, comprise only a part of HCPs in intestinal and liver perfusate. Finally, analysis of portal vein blood revealed that the larger peptides, such as pentadecapeptide identified in this study, could be absorbed in vivo. Taken all together, this study showed that peptides which are larger than tripeptide could reach to the circulation system after administration of CH, revealing previously unknown dynamics of absorption of CH.
Interferon-tau (IFNT) is known as an early pregnancy recognition signal in ruminants. An accurate and convenient IFNT detection system is desirable for the diagnosis of endometrial and trophoblastic functions, including gestation status, in cows. The aim of this study was to develop a new cell-based assay, which involved the stable introduction of an interferon-stimulated gene promoter to a luciferase reporter system. The reactivity of four interferon-stimulated genes to IFNT in Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells was confirmed using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. The upstream region of the interferon-stimulated gene 15 ubiquitin-like modifier (ISG15) gene as the promoter of the reporter gene, which is more responsive to IFNT and other IFNs, was determined using the luciferase assay. The reporter gene with the ISG15 upstream region was stably transfected into MDBK cells using the PiggyBac vector system; this cell line responded to type I IFNs in a dose-dependent manner. Because of its convenience, this cell line is suitable for the quantification of IFNT as well as other type I IFNs activities.
We describe a novel immuno-scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique that combines both Tokuyasu’s cryosectioning and section SEM methods. In this technique, semithin cryosections, cut according to the Tokuyasu method, were adhered to glass microscope slides, immunostained for bio-molecules of interest and observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The same sections were subsequently embedded in epoxy resin and ultrathin sections were cut on an ultramicrotome. These were then observed by SEM using a backscattered electron detector. Correlation between immunofluorescence and SEM images was performed in the same area of the cryosection. Immuno-SEM was also performed using a FluoroNanogold-labeled secondary antibody. This novel immuno-SEM method can provide ultrastructural information of cell organelles in relation to associated molecules, such as Golgi- and ER-associated proteins. This novel immuno-SEM technique has the potential to be widely used.
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome phlebovirus (SFTSV) is a newly emerged phlebovirus identified in China, Japan, and South Korea. Phlebovirus glycoproteins (GP) play a key role in targeting viral structural components to the budding compartments in the ER–Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) and Golgi complex. However, the role of SFTSV GP in targeting structural proteins to the ERGIC and Golgi complex remains unresolved. In this study, we show that SFTSV GP plays a significant role in targeting RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L) and nucleocapsid protein (NP) to the budding sites. Confocal microscopy was used to investigate the subcellular localization of SFTSV structural proteins. In SFTSV-infected cells, GP and L localized to the ER, ERGIC and Golgi complex, whereas NP localized to the ERGIC and Golgi complex. In addition, GP colocalized with L and NP in infected cells. In cells singly transfected with GP, L or NP, GP localized to the same subcellular compartments as in infected cells. However, L or NP alone did not localize to the ER, ERGIC, or Golgi complex. Cotransfection experiments showed that GP altered the localization of L to the ERGIC and Golgi complex but not that of NP. Interestingly, plasmid-expressed NP fused with a hemagglutinin tag localized to the ERGIC and Golgi complex when expressed in SFTSV-infected cells and colocalised with GP, suggesting that GP plays a role in the subcellular localization of L and NP in infected cells. Thus, the SFTSV structural components start to assemble at the ERGIC to Golgi complex. GP is required for transporting L and NP to the ERGIC and Golgi complex. In addition, targeting of NP requires interaction with other factors besides GP.
For several decades, the neurotoxicities of anesthetics to the developing brain have been reported by many researchers focusing on various phenomena such as apoptosis, neurodegeneration, electrophysiological aberrations, and behavioral abnormalities. According to these reports, signals via N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDA-r) and/or γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAA-r) are implicated in the anesthetic neurotoxicity. On the other hand, during brain development, NMDA-r and GABAA-r are also recognized to play primary roles in neural cell migration. Therefore, anesthetics exposed in this period may influence the neural cell migration of neonates, and increase the number of hilar ectopic granule cells, which are reported to be a cause of continuous neurological deficits. To examine this hypothesis, we investigated immunohistochemically granule cell distribution in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of Wistar/ST rats after nitrous oxide (N2O) exposure. At postnatal day (P) 6, 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was administered to label newly generated cells. Then, rats were divided into groups (n = 6 each group), exposed to 50% N2O at P7, and evaluated at P21. As a result, we found that ectopic ratios (ratio of hilar/total granule cells generated at P6) were decreased in rats at P21 compared with those at P7, and increased in N2O exposed rats for over 120 min compared with the other groups. These results suggest that 50% N2O exposure for over 120 min increases the ratios of ectopic granule cells in the rat dentate gyrus.
Circadian disruption affects the pathogenesis and development of various diseases. Depression is one of the most common diseases that relate to circadian rhythm. In this study, we analyzed the effects of daily light/dark (LD) conditions on depression and other symptoms, and also analyzed the mixed effects of LD conditions and corticosterone treatment. Male adult C57BL/6 mice were treated with corticosterone in a normal LD cycle of 12 hours light and 12 hours dark (LD12 : 12), short day conditions of 6 hours light and 18 hours dark (LD6 : 18), or long day conditions of 21 hours light and 3 hours dark (LD21 : 3). The activity rhythms of mice in aberrant LD conditions were entrained within 2 weeks. After 6 weeks of exposure, several behavioral tests were conducted. Corticosterone induced body weight gain and depression-like symptoms. The short or long LD conditions had little effect on vehicle-treated mice behavior. However, the aberrant LD conditions exacerbated the corticosterone-induced symptoms. Mice treated with corticosterone in LD6 : 18 showed exacerbated depression-like symptoms in a novelty suppressed feeding test. On the other hand, LD21 : 3 did not show any effects on mood, but enhanced corticosterone-induced body weight gain. These results indicated that aberrant LD conditions could act as an exacerbating factor for corticosterone-induced symptoms, and that short and long photoperiods induce different psychological and physiological changes. This corticosterone + aberrant LD model could be a useful animal model for investigating the effect of LD conditions on depression, obesity, and other symptoms in stressful circumstances.