Hericium erinaceus has been recognized as medical mushroom since ancient time, but its scientific evidence for human health has been still uncertain. In this study, we tested a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-group comparative study to evaluate the improvement of the cognitive functions by taking supplements containing fruiting body of H. erinaceus for 12 weeks. We performed three kinds of tests: Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Benton visual retention test, and Standard verbal paired-associate learning test (S-PA). MMSE alone showed that oral intake of H. erinaceus significantly improved cognitive functions and prevented from the deterioration. We speculate that various chemical compounds, including hericenones, in the mushroom have multiple effects to the brain neural networks and improve cognitive functions. Oral intake of H.erinaceus is safe and convenient method for dementia prevention so far.
In this study, we attempted to localize the immunoreactivities of podoplanin/E11/gp38 and CD44, a counterpart possessing a high affinity to podoplanin/E11/gp38, as well as endomucin-immunoreactive blood vessels in the regions of odontoblast layers and the underlying sub-odontoblastic layers in murine tooth germs. Endomucin-reactive small blood vessels were scattered throughout the dental papillae of the tooth germs at postnatal day 1 but came to be localized close to the odontoblast/sub-odontoblastic layers until day 3. After postnatal day 5, small blood vessels were seen in odontoblast cell layers, while blood vessels with relatively larger diameters were seen forming in sub-odontoblastic layers. Immunoreactivities of podoplanin/E11/gp38 and CD44 were not detectable in the cells of dental papillae facing the inner enamel epithelium at postnatal day 1. However, at around postnatal days 3–5, podoplanin/E11/gp38 was localized in the odontoblast layer but not in the sub-odontoblastic layer, whereas CD44 was observed in the sub-odontoblastic layer but not in the odontoblast layer. The exclusive immunolocalization of podoplanin/E11/gp38 and CD44 in the odontoblast layers and sub-odontoblastic layers was seen after postnatal day 3 of the tooth germs, when the mesenchymal cells of dental papillae have already differentiated into mature odontoblasts at the cusp tip. Taken together, it seems likely that endomucin-reactive small blood vessels extended to the podoplanin/E11/gp38-positive odontoblast layers, whereas endomucin-reactive large blood vessels were already present in CD44-immmunopositive sub-odontoblastic layer, indicating the cellular regulation on the vascularization of endomucin-reactive endothelial cells during odontogenesis of the tooth germs.
We investigated the mechanisms by which propiverine hydrochloride influenced bladder activity in rats with pelvic venous congestion (PC) and urinary frequency. To create PC rats, female rats were anesthetized with isoflurane and the bilateral common iliac veins and bilateral uterine veins were ligated. At 4 weeks after ligation, we assessed voiding behaviour, locomotor activity, and urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and nitric oxide metabolites (NOx). We also performed cystometry and measured mRNAs for nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and several receptors in the bladder wall. PC rats showed a decrease in locomotor activity and an increased frequency of urination. There was a decrease in endothelial NOS (eNOS), M3, and TRPV1 mRNA expression in the bladder wall, as well as an increase in inducible NOS (iNOS) mRNA. Administration of propiverine to PC rats increased locomotor activity to the level in sham rats, improved bladder function, decreased urinary 8-OHdG excretion, and increased urinary NOx excretion. In addition, propiverine increased neuronal NOS (nNOS) mRNA expression, and decreased expression of iNOS, M3 and TRPV1 mRNA in the bladder wall. Therefore, propiverine not only improved bladder dysfunction through its previously reported actions (anti-muscarinic effect, Ca antagonist effect, and inhibition of noradrenaline re-uptake), but also by reducing inflammation.
Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRBP) plays important roles in protection against harmful effects of cold temperature. We previously found that several splicing variants of CIRBP mRNA are constitutively expressed in the heart of non-hibernating euthermic hamsters and that one of the variants is predominantly expressed with remarkable reduction in the expression of other variants in hibernating hypothermic hamsters. The aim of this study was to determine whether the regulation of alternative splicing is a common function in a non-hibernator, the mouse. The expression of CIRBP mRNA was assessed by RT-PCR. In euthermic control mice, several splicing variants of CIRBP mRNA were detected in various organs. When hypothermia was induced in mice by using isoflurane anesthesia, the short form variant, which encodes full-length functional CIRBP, was predominantly detected. Keeping body temperature of anesthetized mice at 37°C prevented changes in the splicing pattern. Exposure of mice to a low temperature did not change the splicing pattern, suggesting that endogenous neuronal and/or humoral pathways activated in response to cold stimuli applied to the body surface play minor roles. In agreement with this, the shift in alternative splicing was reproduced in isolated leukocytes in vitro when they were incubated at 28°C. Since application of a TRPM8 or TRPA1 agonist at 37°C failed to promote the shift in the splicing pattern, it seems likely that cold-sensitive channels are not involved in the splicing regulation. Therefore, it is probable that a substantial reduction of temperature is a major cause of the regulation of alternative splicing of CIRBP transcripts. The regulatory system of CIRBP expression at the level of alternative splicing, which was originally discovered in the hibernating hamster, commonly exists in non-hibernators such as mice.
It is suspected that oral bacteria are transferred to the liquid baby formula through the artificial nipple and multiply in the bottle after feeding. In the present study, in order to understand the influence of bacteria on liquid baby formula after feeding, the transfer of oral bacteria through artificial nipples and their survival in liquid baby formula were examined immediately after drinking as well as after storage at 4°C for 3 h. Four healthy human subjects (20–23 years old) were asked to drink liquid baby formula (Aptamil®, ca. 50 mL) from baby bottles using artificial nipples. Samples of the liquid baby formula (immediately after drinking and 3 h later) were inoculated onto blood agar plates and incubated anaerobically at 37°C for 7 days. Salivary samples from each subject and 6 newborn infants were also cultured. Genomic DNA was extracted from individual colonies, and bacterial species were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The mean amounts of bacteria (CFU/mL) were (3.2 ± 3.0) ×104 and (3.4 ± 3.3) ×104 immediately after drinking and 3 h later, respectively. Streptococcus (41.6 and 40.5%), Actinomyces (24.3 and 21.5%) and Veillonella (16.2 and 11.0%) were recovered from the samples immediately after drinking and 3 h later, respectively. On the other hand, Streptococcus (38.9%), Actinomyces (17.1%), Neisseria (9.1%), Prevotella (6.9%), Rothia (6.9%) and Gemella (5.1%) were predominant in the saliva of adult subjects, and Streptococcus (65.2%), Staphylococcus (18.5%), Gemella (8.2%) and Rothia (5.4%) were predominant in the saliva of infant subjects. From these findings, oral bacteria, e.g., Streptococcus, Gemella and Rothia, were found to transfer into the liquid baby formula through artificial nipples, and the bacterial composition in the remaining liquid baby formula was found to resemble that of human saliva. The bacterial levels were similar between immediately after drinking and when stored at 4°C for 3 h, suggesting that the remaining liquid baby formula may be preserved in a refrigerator for a specified amount of time.
Migration of osteoblasts to the sites resorbed by osteoclasts is an essential step in bone remodeling. However, the exact mechanism of osteoblast migration is still not known. We have shown that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB induces the migration of osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells through the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p44/p42 MAP kinase. Evidence is accumulating that heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) acts as a central regulator of proteostasis under stress conditions and physiological cell functions. In the present study, using transwell cell migration assay and wound-healing assay, we investigated the involvement of HSP90 in the PDGF-BB-stimulated migration of MC3T3-E1 cells, and the underlying signaling mechanism estimated by Western blot analyses. Onalespib, an HSP90 inhibitor, significantly reduced the PDGF-BB-stimulated migration evaluated by the two types of migration assays. The cell migration was also suppressed by geldanamycin, another type of HSP90 inhibitor. Onalespib markedly attenuated the PDGF-BB-elicited phosphorylation of p44/p42 MAP kinase without affecting that of p38 MAP kinase or JNK. In addition, the phosphorylation of p44/p42 MAP kinase by PDGF-BB was reduced by geldanamycin. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that HSP90 inhibitors suppress the PDGF-BB-induced osteoblast migration through the attenuation of p44/p42 MAP kinase activity.