The basal lamina of the villous epithelium in the small intestine has numerous fenestrations, which are produced by leukocytes for their intraepithelial migration. We previously showed that these fenestrations change due to the dynamics of migrating leukocytes in response to dietary conditions and suggested the possibility that this change is related to the regulation of the absorption of large-sized nutrients such as chylomicrons. The present study was, thus, designed to investigate structural changes in basal lamina fenestrations in response to a high-fat diet. The ultrastructure of the intestinal villi in the rat upper jejunum was investigated by electron microscopy of tissue sections in both the normal and the high-fat diet groups, and the fenestrations in the villous epithelium of rat upper jejunum were studied by scanning electron microscopy of osmium macerated/ ultrasonicated tissues. The present study showed that free cells adhering to the fenestrations increased in the upper jejunum two hours after feeding high-fat diet and the size of the fenestrations in this region also increased after feeding high-fat diet for 2 days. This enlargement of fenestrations may play an important role in increasing the efficiency of lipid absorption by facilitating the movement of chylomicrons from the intercellular space to the lamina propria.
T1R1 and T1R3 are receptors expressed in taste buds that detect L-amino acids. These receptors are also expressed throughout diverse organ systems, such as the digestive system and muscle tissue, and are thought to function as amino acid sensors. The mechanism of transcriptional regulation of the mouse T1R1 gene (Tas1r1) has not been determined; therefore, in this study, we examined the function of Tas1r1 promoter in the mouse myoblast cell line, C2C12. Luciferase reporter assays showed that a 148-bp region upstream of the ATG start codon of Tas1r1 had a promoter activity. The GT box in the Tas1r1 promoter was conserved in the dog, human, mouse, and pig. Site-directed mutagenesis of this GT box significantly reduced the promoter activation. The GT box in promoters is a recurring motif for Sp/KLF family members. RNAi-mediated depletion of Sp4 and Klf5 decreased Tas1r1 expression, while overexpression of Klf5, but not Sp4, significantly increased Tas1r1 expression. The ENCODE data of chromatin immunoprecipitation and sequencing (ChIP-seq) showed that Klf5 bound to the GT box during the myogenic differentiation. Furthermore, the Klf5 knockout cell lines led to a considerable decrease in the levels of Tas1r1 expression. Collectively, these results showed that Klf5 binds to the GT box in the Tas1r1 promoter and regulates Tas1r1 expression in C2C12 cells.
The vitreous of perinatal mice temporarily develops a unique vascular system, called the vasa hyaloidea propria (VHP). Observations showed the vessels possessed an extracellular matrix including the basement membrane in their entire length. Immunostaining of whole mount preparations of VHP with integrin β1 antibody displayed a bush-like network consisting of long and straight fibers which were associated with the VHP but extended apart from the blood vessels. Electron microscopically, each fiber was composed of a bundle of thin filaments different from collagen fibrils. Macrophages associated with the VHP appeared to be arrested by the integrin bushes. The integrin bushes fragmented and disappeared by postnatal day 10, just before the regression of the VHP. Macrophages were involved in the digestion and clearance of integrin bushes. The vitreous integrin bushes appear to provide a scaffold for architectural maintenance of the hyaloid vessels and macrophages.
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) urease is a key protein for persistent infection of the bacteria in the stomach. Although H. pylori generally induce anti-H. pylori-specific antibodies (Abs), these Abs do not usually work for eradication or prevention of the H. pylori infection. In our previous study, we identified a linear epitope composed of 19-mer peptides termed UB-33, CHHLDKSIKEDVQFADSRI, within the large subunit of H. pylori urease. Anti-UB-33-specific Abs neutralized the enzymatic activity of H. pylori urease in vitro. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of immunization of BALB/c mice with H. pylori UB-33 peptide. After confirming the production of anti-UB-33-specific Abs, mice were challenged orally with H. pylori Sydney Strain-1 (SS-1). Mice producing anti-UB-33-specific Abs were not infected with SS-1, and the amount of SS-1 isolate in their stomach was significantly reduced. Also, the urease-negative mutant of H. pylori, HPP1801, did not colonize in the stomach, indicating that H. pylori urease was a critical element for infection of H. pylori in the gastric mucosa. Moreover, mice producing UB-33-specific Abs apparently suppressed H. pylori infection in the stomach where anti-UB-33 Abs were secreted in the gastric juice, indicating that H. pylori colonization was inhibited in the presence of anti-UB-33 Abs. In addition, the neutralization activity of sera from mice immunized with purified urease was less potent than that in the sera from mice immunized with UB-33. Furthermore, the recognition of epitope UB-33 was mediated through Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) on the B-1 cells using TLR2-knockout BALB/c mice in vivo. These results indicate that liner peptide UB-33 should be used for immunization to induce neutralizing Abs instead of purified H. pylori urease to prevent H. pylori infection and their colonization in the stomach.