Small bats (microchiroptera) get various types of information about their targeted objects by comparing returning echoes to emitted ultrasonic pulses, which is called “Biosonar”. This paper introduces the outline of biosonar, and then explains consistency and plasticity of vocalization, changes in vocalization due to relationships between targets and the bat. This paper also describes how they vocalize for the real-time time-sharing signal processing based upon data obtained with an onboard telemetry microphone system and data recorded with reversible focal inactivation of neural activities. Amazing real-time time-sharing signal processing performed by a brain as small as the tip of our little finger will be explained.
It is quite important to understand behavior of biomolecules in terms of the diffusion coefficient inside live cells since the diffusion speed of biomolecules sometimes affects the result of chemical reactions with downstream target molecules. Here, we introduce several technologies to measure diffusion coefficient of biomolecules in living cells, and discuss about biological meaning of diffusion measurement analysis.
Recent progress in single molecule imaging techniques has made it possible to visualize individual protein molecules at work even in living cells. Using this technique, we can analyze kinetics of molecular reactions both in living cells and reconstitution systems. Here, introducing two reactions carried out by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), we show examples of single-molecule kinetic analysis. Single-molecule kinetic analysis allows us to obtain reaction parameters in complicated living organisms. Also, it is revealing complex reaction behavior of proteins both in vitro and in vivo.