One soybean accession, F5-3 introduced from INSOY (1985), as a reduced β-subunit mutant of 7S conglycinin was screened out of 620 soybean accessions by using SDS-PAGE. This accession was crossed with two leading high yielding varieties, MTD65 and MTD176, in Viet Nam for evaluation of β-subunit inheritance patterns. Results of Chi-square analysis showed that the β-subunit of cross I (MTD65 x F5-3) was controlled not only by one gene as complete dominance (3:1) and incomplete dominance (1:2:1) types, but also by two interacting genes (9:3:4). However, the β-subunit of cross II (MTD176 x F5-3) did not fit any of the inheritance patterns mentioned above. A new inheritance pattern, involving crossing-over between two incompletely linked genes on the same chromosome, was proposed. Results from analyses of F1 and backcross seeds also confirmed this new genetic pattern. An additional new gene symbol for the β-subunit was suggested, with dominant genes expressed as Cgy3a and Cgy3b, and recessive genes as cgy3a and cgy3b. Propagation of F3 seeds of the two crosses are continuing, in order to provide pure lines for future molecular research and for soybean breeding.
Studies during the summers of 1996-1998, indicated that the grazing forms and land use types in the Hulunber grassland have changed due to various social changes in recent decades. Grazing forms found in the area were: year-round nomadic; seasonal nomadic; and settled grazing. Land use types found in Holobo and Kerlun, the two villages in the grassland were: 1) free-grazing land; 2) nomadic summering land; 3) land for nomadic wintering and mowing; 4) mowing land; and 5) unused land. Free-grazing land was used for both settled and nomadic grazing by villagers and nomads. Settled grazing was uncommon in nomadic land due to local common rules. Land use types differed in proportion between Holobo, which is closer to cities in the east part, and Kerlun, which is far from cities in the west part of the Hulunber grassland. No lands exclusively used for mowing were available in Kerlun, while no unused lands and no nomadic wintering and mowing lands were available in Holobo. Nomadic land was larger in Kerlun (43%) than in Holobo (25%). No nomads stayed in free-grazing lands in winter and spring in Holobo. Livestock, which were raised in the two villages, consisted of sheep, goats, cattle, horses, and camels. In Holobo, the settled grazing livestock density (sheep units/km2) was 267.2/km2, which was 2.4 times higher than by nomadic grazing (109.2/km2), while in Kerlun the nomadic grazing livestock density was 57.7/km2, which was 1.5 times higher than by the settled grazing (39.4/km2).
European bison Bison bonasus were re-introduced at two sites in the Bieszczady Mountains during the 1960s and 1970s. The genetic analysis done on the basis of the European Bison Pedigree Book allowed the determination of basic genetic parameters for every herd member, including founder contribution, founder genome equivalent, inbreeding and kinship values. This analysis has revealed that after about 30 years, those small, isolated herds have become highly inbred and genotypes of some founders are missing in this population. Appropriate individuals bearing genes of underrepresented or lacking founders have been selected from Swedish and Danish breeding centres, since in Poland the Lowland-Caucasian line is already represented only in free ranging herds at Bieszczady. After the acclimatisation period, bison were released within the home range of the western herd in Komancza Forest District. Genetic analysis indicates that similar problems exist in other herds in the Bieszczady Mountains, therefore the supplementation of missing bloodlines is also recommended for them. Management of Bieszczady herds should focus on creating a true meta-population with an effective population number of at least 100 individuals i.e. 200-300 animals in total.
How do we manage so as to consider or account for both ecosystems and the biosphere? How do we consider complexity in general while resolving conflicts such as those between the effects of predators on prey populations and vice versa? The tradeoffs among economic and ecological factors have proven impossible to address in conventional management. Finding balance among the conflicting forces of nature is one of the principal challenges for management. Systemic management resolves such dilemmas by finding guidance based on empirical information in emergent patterns. In this paper we describe systemic management and contrast it with conventional management to show how systemic management more successfully accounts for complexity. We add to the list of examples of how systemic management could be applied by illustrating its use in the spatial and temporal distribution of fisheries harvests, as well as the establishment of marine reserves and closed seasons. This can involve harvests from individual resource species, ecosystems, or the whole marine environment. A key difference between systemic management and conventional management is the guiding information used. Conventional management uses thought, models, meetings, lists, consensus, or stakeholder input whereas systemic management uses empirical information to mimic natural systems wherein the use of models is restricted to finding and describing emergent patterns.
Historical changes in anthropogenic pressure have been described for the area of the Bieszczady Mountains, the south-eastern most part of the Polish Carpathians. The area, now belonging to the least inhabited and most forested parts of the country, was subject to dramatic changes in population numbers, land cover and land use patterns due to political and economic changes during the last 150 years. Since 1950, within an area of about 2000km2, changes towards re-naturalisation through secondary succession, reforestation, land abandonment, spontaneous and forced emigration have occurred on an unprecedented scale when compared with other European countries. The influences of changes in economic development and population density on land use patterns and landscape structure in the region are discussed.