Monitoring of forest cover and carbon sequestration changes under reducing emission from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) scheme is not only required for remote sensing technology, but also ground base monitoring. This study aims to identify the procedure of knowledge and skills of both inexperienced and experienced villagers use of tree measurement tools have improved after participated in the trainings. The villagers’ perspective towards acquired knowledge and skills were also explored. In this case study, we selected villagers of Napo who participated in the action research project on forest carbon accounting in Laos. We then classified villagers into two groups “inexperienced” and “experienced” villagers. Our results indicate the knowledge and skills of the inexperienced’ villagers use of inventory tools have been improved as experienced’ villagers after joining the training and field site testing activities. Even though some villagers are facing difficulties of using the advanced forest inventory tools, their skills and knowledge have been increased after participation in the action research activities. This study highlighted the enhancement of knowledge and skills of local villagers through the training and field site testing, and provided an opportunity to participate and contribute on the future of REDD+ MRV effort.
Given the increasing dairy and poultry industries, cowdung (CD) and poultry manure (PM) might become alternative sources of nitrogen (N) for rice production in South Asia. A field experiment was conducted during dry season (Nov-April) in Chhiata clay loam soil. The experiment aimed to evaluate the effect of N from organic and inorganic sources on dry matter and N uptake pattern of rice. We compared (i) N-control, ii) Optimum dose of nitrogen (164 kg N/ha) from urea, iii) 50% N from urea and 50% N from CD, iv) 50% N from urea and 50% N from PM, v) 100% N from CD and vi) 100% N from PM. Two mega varieties BRRI dhan28 and BRRI dhan29, were used as test crops. Application of N from urea, urea + PM and absolute PM increased dry matter significantly both in BRRI dhan28 and BRRI dhan29. The combination of urea and PM, absolute urea and absolute PM gave greater N uptake compared to other treatments in different growth stages of rice. The urea + PM treatment gave similar yield to that of urea in both the varieties, however, BRRI dhan29 gave about 1.17 t /ha higher yield than BRRI dhan28. The PM treatment gave similar yield to that with urea + PM in BRRI dhan28, but BRRI dhan29 gave significantly lower yield in PM than the urea + PM. Sole cowdung or poultry manure application produced significantly lower grain yield than urea + PM treatment and sole urea application. Because of insufficient mineralization of N from CD and PM, sole organic sources of N were not as good as combined use of organic and inorganic fertilizer amendments.
The study estimated the benefit and rates of returns to investment on garlic research and development in Bangladesh. The Economic Surplus Model with ex-post analysis was used to determine the returns to investment and their distribution between the production and consumption. Several discounting techniques were also used to assess the efficiency of garlic research. The adoption rate was found increasing trend over the period. The yield of BARI Developed Modern varieties of garlic was 45 to 58% higher than those of the traditional variety. Society got net benefit Tk 1221.96 million from the investment of garlic research and extension. The internal rate of return (IRR), net present value (NPV) and benefit cost ratio (BCR) were estimated to be 50%, Tk 433.57 million and 2.81, respectively. The results indicated that investment in research and developments of garlic become a good investment.
Five different plant extracts including neem (Azadirachta indica), mehedi (Lawsonia alba), garlic clove (Allium sativum), rhizome of ginger (Zingiber officinales), seeds of black cumin (Nigella sativa), and BAU-Biofungicide (a Trichoderma based preparation) were used to evaluate the performance or effectiveness of those biological control agent on Bipolaris leaf blight of wheat and related pathogen (Bipolarissorokiniana). Pathogenic reaction was observed in Bipolaris sorokiniana against different treatments by detached leaf method where leaf spot size was minimum (4.5mm) with BAU-Biofungicide and maximum leaf spot size (32.5mm) with control. Effect of seed treatment on wheat plant was evaluated by rolled paper towel method and BAU-Biofungicide, extracts of garlic clove and neem leaf at the value of 13%, 12% and 10%, respectively higher normal seedlings and BAU-Biofungicide also resulted 26.6% higher vigour index over control. Multiplication effect (seed treatment plus foliar spray of same treatment) of different treatments was examined to determine the efficacy for disease control. In pot and field experiments, though Bavistin and Tilt were most effective however, BAU-Biofungicide and extract of garlic clove were superior compared with the treatments used for controlling leaf blight of wheat. Multiplication effect of seed treatment plus foliar spray showed superior effect by BAU-Biofungicide including higher 1000-grain weight (43.92g) and grain yield (2.75 t/ha). Seed treatment with Bavistin and foliar spray with Tilt showed 1000-grain weight and grain yield by 47.12g and 3.0 t/ha, respectively. Our data also revealed that BAU-Biofungicide increased grain yield (29.87%) over control.
The experiment was conducted at Regional Agricultural Research Station and Pulses Research Centre of Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Ishwardi during three consecutive years of 2009-10, 2010-11 and 2011-12. Four dates of sowing (D1=25 October, D2=10 November, D3=25 November, D4=10 December) and seven varieties/lines of lentil (V1= BARI Lentil-3, V2=BARI Lentil-4, V3= BARI Lentil-5, V4= BARI Lentil-6, V5= BARI Lentil-7, V6=BLX-98001-1, V7= BLX-98002-3 were used as treatments in the experiment. Record of maximum mean number of pods per plant, production of higher 1000-seed weight, seed yield, duration of vegetative phase, duration of reproductive phase, duration for maturity, growing degree days (GDD) in vegetative phase, reproductive phase and maturity; and relationship between seed yield were evaluated. Optimum parameters and prediction of seed yield (against optimum parameters) was also computed through developed function models. Estimated optimum temperature in reproductive phase for maximum predicted seed yield, the estimated optimum sowing date for maximum predicted seed yield, the estimated GDD in maturity for maximum predicted seed yield, the estimated GDD in vegetative Phase for maximum seed yield and the estimated duration for maturity for maximum predicted seed yield were estimated. In this experiment, the results revealed that adjusted sowing of lentil is 15 November as changing environment in Bangladesh in relevant to the assessing functional models.
With a view to determine prevalence and impact of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on chilli (Capsicum annum L.) eleven varieties consisting one Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI) released variety BARI Marich-1, and ten local varieties like Chittagong, Comilla-1, Jamalpur, Gazipur, Chandpur, Pusa jawla, Comilla-2, Kustia, Bogra and Balujhuri were tested. The results of the symptomatological study, host range test and Double Antibody Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immune - Sorbent Assay (DAS-ELISA) revealed that the identified virus was Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). The incidence of CMV was recorded as 3.00 to 21.21% depending on the varieties. The highest prevalence (21.21%) of CMV was recorded in Kustia and lowest (3.00%) was in variety Comilla-2. Significant (P=0.05) reduction of growth and yield contributing characters of different chilli varieties were observed due to CMV infection. The highest plant height (39.21%) and canopy diameter/spreading (36.84%) reduction were recorded in variety Chandpur and Balujhuri respectively and lowest plant height (15.67%) and canopy diameter (8.88%) reduction were recorded in variety Comilla-2. The number of fruit/plant reduction was varies from 49.63 to 89.29% where highest in variety Balujhuri and lowest in Comilla. Fruit length and fruit weight reduction were found from 14.03 to 44.14% and 10.56 to 36.96%, respectively.
The experiment was conducted at the laboratory of Postharvest Technology Section, Horticulture Research Centre, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur during August 2014 to select suitable additives for minimal processing of jackfruit bulb. The bulbs of cultivar ‘khaja’ was evaluated in respect of shelf life, TSS, total sugar, reducing sugar, titratable acidity, vitamin C, color and sensory quality by using different levels of ascorbic acid consisting of T1= 0.2%, T2= 0.4%, T3= 0.6%, T4= 0.8% and, T5= 1.0%, respectively and stored at refrigerator (4±1oC). Treatment T3 (0.6%)showed better shelf life (12 Days) over all treatments retaining better color, titratable acidity (%), vitamin C and sensory quality. In case of TSS (%), T1 (0.2%) showed better performance. Treatment T4 (0.8%)showed better performance on retaining the amount of total sugar and reducing sugar of jackfruit bulb. Treatment T3 (0.6%) is the best treatment for minimal processing of jackfruit bulb with 12 days of preservation time at refrigerator (4±1oC).
An experiment was conducted at the farm of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka during the period from October 2013 to March 2014 to study the effect of potassium and GA3 on the growth and yield of tomato. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications and consisted of two factors. Factor A is consisting K0 = Control (No fertilizer), K1 = 120 kg, K2 = 150 kg and K3 = 180 kg K2O/ha respectively and Factor B is consisting G0 = Control (No GA3), G1 = 40 ppm and G2 = 60 ppm GA3 respectively. In case of potassium, K1 produced the highest yield (59.45t/ha) and K0 produced the lowest yield (51.33 t/ha). In case of GA3, G1 produced the highest yield (58.66 t/ha) and G0 produced the lowest yield (46.55 t/ha). Combined effect of K1G1 produced the highest yield (70.77 t/ha) and K0G0 produced the lowest yield (43.89 t/ha). The highest (4.75) benefit cost ratio was recorded from the combination of K1G1. Therefore, 120 kg K20/ha with 40 ppm GA3 was found suitable for growth and yield of tomato.
A field experiment was conducted at the Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University Farm, Dhaka 1207 during the kharif season of 2014 to study the growth and yield of Mungbean (BARI Mung-6) as influenced by potassium and sulphur. The experimental soil was silty clay loam in texture having pH 6.14 and organic carbon content is 0.68%. Four levels of potassium (K) (0, 15, 25 and 35 kg K/ha) and three levels of sulphur (S) (0, 3 and 6 kg S/ha) were used in the study. The results reveald that grain and stover yield of mungbean increased with accumulation levels of potassium and sulphur. The N, P, K and S concentration of mungbean increased significantly from control to K2S2 (25 kg K/ha + 6 kg S/ha) and again decreased with increasing potassium more than 25 kg K/ha. Application of potassium and sulphur fertilizers increased organic carbon, derived from N, P, K and S status of postharvest soil significantly.
Rice blast disease is one of the major destructive fungal diseases of rice in Myanmar. In 2011, forty-six isolates of Pyricularia grisea were collected from Myanmar. The population structure of the P. grisea was determined by Rep-PCR using Pot2-TIR and MGR586-TIR primers separately. The combined dendrogram was constructed based on the different fingerprint patterns. Three fingerprint groups (designated as Type-A, Type-B and Type-C) were identified. Type-A and B were dominantly existed in Aung Ban area (Southern Shan State) whereas Type-C was prevalence in Hmawbi area (Yangon Division). Pathotypes of the representative isolates from each fingerprint group were examined by inoculating on a set of twelve Japanese differential rice cultivars and nine races (031.0, 032.0, 036.0, 106.4, 122.4, 132.4, 136.4, 432.5 and 437.5) were identified. This is the first characterization of genetic and pathotypic variations of P. girsea in Myanmar and there was no clear association between the genetic fingerprint profiles and pathotypic races.